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túarastal n o,[n.] (frestal, Thurn. Gramm. p. 532 ). Occas.
10alsotúarasndal. I In Lawsdescriptionof acrime,evidence
of aneye-witness; coll.witnesses (see Thurn. ZCP xv 328 ,
xviii 387 n. 4 , Cóic Con. Fug 68 ):is tuarastal deimin
iní sin .i. tuarastal aicsini, O'C. 2569 ( Eg. 88,48 (49)d ).
derbtuarastal aicsini, O'C. 2570 ( Eg. 88,48 (49)a ).an tuarustal
15fastas innraic for nech co na faicsin di budein, O'C. 2428 ( Eg.
88,33 (34)d ).iss ann is tuarustul in uair isi gait i fil for
iarair co sunnradhach frith ann, O'C. 606 ( H. 3.18,296 )
`der Fall, wo man das Gestohlene wirklich bei dem findet,
wo man es (vermutet und) sucht
,' Cóic Con. Fug. 68 . In the
20follg.t. ¤ would appear to refer to evidence given voluntarily
by an eye-witness, and for which payment is made:deithbir
itir fiadnaisi in mic bic ┐ a tuarustal; a fiadnaisi ina fiad-
naise ro himradh, ┐ tic uadha gin erba ris; a tuarustal,
imorro, tic uadha gin imradh gin erba ris, ┐ gaba logh ara
25tuarustal, ┐ ni gaba ar a fiadhnaisi, O'C. 2430 ( Eg. 88,
35 (36)a ).deithbir itir fiadnaisi ┐ tuarustal an ecodnaigh;
isi a fiadnaisi in tan ro badhus ac aidbriu fir imtechta na
cana domnaigh, ┐ atá fear imteachta aga shéna a fiadhnaise
an ecodnaigh, ┐ adber in tecodnach, is brég duit, ar sé,
30adconnarcsa thú ag imtecht. Isé imorro a tuarustal,
adubairt a fiadhnaise a muinntire. do connarcsa, ar sé,
duine ag imtecht na cana domnaigh, ┐ ní leigid a muindtir do
innisin gu tarda[r ?] logh dhó aire o dlighthech cana dom-
naigh, O'C. 2431 ( Eg. 88,35 (36)a ).deithbir itir tuarustal in
35codhnaigh ┐ tuarustal in mic bic. tuarustal in mic bic,
gin erba ris do ní é. tuarustal in codhnaigh ce herbtar gin
co herbtar do ghní, O'C. 2431 ( Eg. 88,35 (36)a ). Of evidence
of the infringement of specific laws (see also above):tuarus-
tal cana Patraic, O'C. 2422 ( Eg. 88,33 (34)b ).et e tra
40tuarusndalai (tuarustal,v.l.) ina canu-sae .i. fiadnuise mac
n-ennaicc ... fiadnuise n-indruic cin forgglid(Cáin Domnaig),
Anecd. iii 24.4 .ōenfer do astud for diis .i. fer in tuarastail
... i tuarastal cāna domnaig, ZCP xv 327 § 19 .tuarastal
na cana so .i. focal is toltanach le nech, O'C. 2568 ( Eg.
4588,48 (49)a ).
In phrasetruma tuarastail conclusive evidence,sworn
evidence(?): issedh is truma tuarustail ann, innraic for
eisinnraic ac astadh fiach im les neich eile co triur ina
deghaidh, ┐ a imdenam di muna thairginn in neisindraic
50fír dé, ┐ ma thairgin is a dul do fir dé ┐ is truma tuarustail
sin, O'C. 2015 ( H. 4. 22,35 ) = O'C. 2618 ( Eg. 88,52 (53)d ).truma
tuarustail berus na hantesta dfír dé, ┐ gach annteist dib
ternas ó fír dé i[s] saor é ar in cina, ┐ cumal an anntestais
díc di, O'C. 2435 ( Eg. 88,35 (36)c ).testugad cach anntesta itir
55la ┐ aidhche, ┐ mana be samlaid is cranncor fair, ┐ is doch-
raite nduine no troma tuarasdail beres na cuirp so dfír dé,
O'C. 2589 ( Eg. 88,50 (51)a ).lín a tuarastail ag feichemuin
toicheda ... mur a deir: gach naoill co tuarastal an oath
supported by the evidence of an eye-witness
(?), O'D. 543
60( H. 3. 17,col. 434 ).dia toingi in fear uil os in acra curap
dimin lais is naill fo tuarustal o fir adgairther, O'C. 352
( H. 3.18,193c ).tuarustal fastaidh fiach evidence which
justifies the imposition of fines
(?), Laws i 234.8 Comm.
mad tuarastal aco annis (a ndís ?) fastait fiacha for robaib
65testa co lucht leithfira no lanfira, O'C. 540 ( H. 3.18,266b ).
General:mā berait dōig dochom neich co tūarasndul`if
they suspect anyone and prove it
,' Cáin Ad. 30.11 .dia mbē
tūarasndal bansgāl, 32.y .aire desa no aire tuisi aire forgill
in tuarastail`der Bezeugungs-aireder Tatbeschreibung ist
70einaire dēsaoder einaire tūise
,' Cóic Con Fug. 38 § 52 .
tuarustal drochdhuine for drochduine, O'D. 557 ( H. 3. 17,
col. 438 ).`tuarasdol' luighe gan lén, Met. Gl. 28 § 40 .
Cf. Stowe Gl. 150.
II (a) stipend,retaining fee(paid by anoverlordto a
75subordinate chief in return fortribute,military service,etc.
See ZCP xvii 207 n. 1 ):a tuaristla ┐ a comhaideachta,
BR 32.17 .fodhail na [d]tuarostal sin ... ó righ Caisil do
righaibh tuath ┐ mórthuath, 80.5 .a chísa-son ó thuathaibh
┐ a thuaristal-son dóibh-seomh, 118.5 .astad tuarastail a
80trocaire, astad fiach a etrocaire`the fixing of wages,' Laws
v 310.6 Comm. conragba mo chor ┐ mo thuarastal`(to)
accept my covenant and wage
,' RC xiv 406.25 .bi[d] toirthigi
a thuarastail(a prospective king), Anecd. i 19.12 .ag so
tuarastla ríoghthaoiseach shíl Muireadhaigh o O'Chon-
85chúbhair, JRSAI ii 342.15 .tūarastal rí cūiccid crúaidh |
dligid rī Essa rīoghrūaidh, ZCP viii 116.29 .ór derg tuarastul
in trír, LL 49b6 .gidbé rí ... do glacfadh tabarthas no
tuarastal árdflaithe eile, go ngabadh maraon risin tuarastal
sin umla ┐ óglachas air féin maille re beith umal do mar
chodnach ┐ im díol císa ┐ cána ris, Caithr. Thoirdh. 3.6 .
5(b)Hence in contextsstressingthesuperiorityof the
payerand the subordination of the payee: ní ar tuarastal
mheic Imair gus aniu atamaidne, Cog. 210.25 .fairend se
long ... do neoch bui for a chur fen ┐ far a thuarastal, ML
164.4 .tangadur sin uile co F. do ghabhail tuarustail an
10Eogain sin(i.e.to acknowledge him as their lord), AU
iii 108.24 .ná cuir bréag ar fhuil na Niall | níor ghabhsad
tuarasdal riamh | ó aoin-neach ...(i.e.never made sub-
mission to anyone), Content. vi 254 .tug siad ... | tuarasdal
d' fhearaibh Éireann, TD 7.5 .bai M. ... rí temra ina thigh,
15┐ rucc tuarustal mor leis(i.e.the gift received after sub-
mission), FM iii 86.12 .
(c) stipend,wages,reward,remunerationin general: da
laím thidnaicthi ratha ┐ tairberta ┐ tuarastail, TBC 3770 .
cor' tuiltis a tuarastal, Met. Dinds. iii 70.66 .ni taiscead ní
20di a thuarustul acht a daethin bid ┐ étaig(of St. Martin when
a soldier), Lat. Lives 88.2 .i tuarastul ṅgaiscidh as a reward
for military service
, TTr.² 177 .Donnsléibhe ... do dhol isin
Mumhain ... ar cend tuarasdail`to serve for wages,' FM ii
914.14 .ro thíodhnaic siomh a ttuarastal do na Gallaibh
25do bhuar iomdha, 1160.5 .gur do na daoinuibh dob [fh]earr
fō thuilleadh ┐ fā t[h]uarustal ... tū most generous in the pay-
ment of wages and stipends
, Feis TC 328 .mar do-gheibh
sealbh an tuarastail thuilleas ar an saoghal, TSh. 8570 .
gách duine ré nach áill ... tuarasdal a mhuintire do dhíol
30`who is unwilling to pay his servants wages,' Donl. 96.20 .
dol a tuarustul`to take wages,' Cog. 50.8 . Note also:
cuingis F. in t-ech ier soin | ar in draoí ... | do rat dó céd
da gach crodh | día tabhairt a ttúarastal`that he might
give it in return
,' Duan. Finn i 28 § 5 . As quasivn.:uirrim
35ó gach éanfhosdadh | mac Dé a-tá gátuarasdal `Christ
earns my allegiance by every check he gives me
,' PBocht 19.1 .
Attrib.g s.:fear toirbearta móir damhsaibh ┐ daos
tuarusdail ` stipendiaries ,' FM iv 1000.z .dfosttadh ócc-
bhaidh ┐ aésa tuarastail` mercenaries ,' vi 2096.4 .fear
40tuarasdail` journey-man ,' Donl. 98.11 .lucht tuarasdail,
DDána 80.36 .le scín bheárrtha thuarusdail`with a razor
that is hired
,' Is. vii 20.

túarastlach adj o, ā(túarastal) (a) generous,bountiful: bá
tuarustlach tiodhlaicthech iad araon dóibh, FM iii 222.6 .
45 do gab ... ag brégad Lochlainn go mórtuarastlach`with
offers of great subsidy
,' Caithr. Thoirdh. 51.18 . (b) Assubst.:
tuarusdalach(sic leg.) `ahireling ' (sic leg.), Eg. Gl. 593
(formáluidhe, John x 12 , 13 ).

túarcon n ā,f.(u,f., Stokes, KZ xxviii 291 ).vn.ofdo-fúairc.
50In Mod. Ir. alsotuargaint. (a) grinding,wearing away
(lit. andfig.): huan tuarcain .i. hua détnaig a fiaclae frial-
ailiugl.attritu dentium, Ml 56d4 .arin tuarcaingl.pro
ualida attritione ossa posuit(comm. onnon est pax ossibus
meis), 58a6 .tuarcnae na m[bocht]`of the grinding of the
55poor
,' 29b9 .hua tuarcaingl.salutationem nostram hostium
atritione perficit, 84c22 .huan tuarcaingl.impiarum gen-
tium attritione gloriosus, 129b11 . Hence in O. Ir. Glosses
trouble,sorrow: tuarcungl.tribulatio, Wb 1c19 .huan
tuarcaingl.multa tristitia, Ml 118b4 .
60(b) grindingorthreshing corn,scutching flax: is bés
leosom in daim do thúarcuin ind arbe`to tread out the corn,'
Wb 10d6 .tuarcain do-fuaircitis inna grán`the grains used
to be crushed by pounding
,' Sg. 184b3 .miach cruaid ... la
tuarcain sil, Fél. xxiv § 6 .cruadugad arba, ┐ tuargain isin
65tig` thrashing ,' Laws v 164.1 Comm. slán n[a] trí cét
tuairgne is in aith, no na trí cétbleithe isin muilinn, O'D.
589 ( H. 3. 17,447 ) =na tri cét tuaircthi, O'D. 2279 ( Rawl. B
506,25a ).dairt cacha bleithe, no cacha tuaircne co ruice
cúic dairte déc, O'D. 1679 ( H. 5. 15,28b ).tuairgne,tuaircne,
70 tuargain`abatchorchargeof akiln ,' O'Don. Suppl. tere-
torium(=tritura)tuairgin, Ir. Gl. 722 .rochennaig Duid
oorna | a hithlaind tuaircni orba, Rawl. 79a10 .a scuapaib
cen thuargain`in sheaves without being scutched' (of flax),
Laws ii 374.5 Comm. (cf. St. in E. Ir. Law 37 ). In sob-
75riquet:Sust ingen Trentuairgne, Anecd. ii 56.6 .
(c) hammering(in a forge): fogur na ngoband oc tuarcain
brotha forsind inneoin, LU 1866 .d'ordaibh troma do
thuairgthe | mé gurb inneoin iombuailte, Studies 1931,
661 § 13 .le h-ordaibh ... gabann ar thindib ... 'gá tren-
80tuargain, MR 238.8 .is eadh is fuaradh do ghiolla an
ghabhann, ... a chor do thuargain an iarainn, TSh. 6209.
(d) In general hammering,beating,smiting,clashing:
cia con lindfadar in n-óchain mo phopa Chonchobair do
thuarggain amlaid-seo ? TBC 6030 .ní assu a tūarcon oldás
85a imchomét`zerschmettern,' ZCP xi 84 § 33 .oca tuarcain
... la drongaib na ndemna, LU 2243 .an bic ... manip dom
thūarcain fo chētóir, ScM.² 13 (minap dom tuarcain ticce,
Eg.).ba teand tuargain tuag for trenfheraib na Pers, Alex.
356 .rabaí slat ┐ siriud ┐ sirthuarcon for a lár ica togail
(Troy), TTr. 562 .comtuarcaint ... na ndemhan ... ac
5sirtuairgaint ... na n-anman[n], RC xxviii 320 § 41 .a
tuarcain o shondaib co mtís léir a cnámu, PH 1394 .co
mbid cach díb oc tuarcain a chind ... for a cheiliu, Ériu
iv 28.1 .ar uamhain a bidhbad da tuargain [i]na diaidh
`for fear of his foeman's attack behind him,' CCath. 2315 .
10 fri tuarcain lureach, Cog. 162.11 .mar bud nert srotha go
sir-tuargain, MR 232.6 .rogabsat tuargaint tenedh tein-
nesnech ar aroile`a fiery, fierce attack,' ZCP vi 41.21 .tuar-
cain f[h]erdha ... do bēimennuib, ML² 1765 .ag tolladh ┐
ag tuargain arthraigh anma an duine, TSh. 2055 .amhail
15bhíd tonna ... ag tuargain a chéile san muir, 7466 .
(e)Of the treatment of woundscleaning,rinsing,bathing
with water(?): rucsatar leo é go glassib ┐ go aibnib C. M.,
do thuargain ┐ do nige a chneda ┐ a chrechta, TBC 4208 =
do īcc ┐ būalad a crēcht do uscib C., TBC² 2737.