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75 ro-finnadar v(Mid.Ir.finnaid) findsout,discovers . In O.Ir.
a depon.; three different stems are used in conjugation:
(1)finn-`discover', in imper., indic. pres. and imperf. (2)
fes(s)-,fias-in subj., fut. and cond., also pass. pret. and gerun- dive. (3)fit-,fet-in pret. act. with force of pres. `know'. For
80 -fitirsee ZCP xv 204 ; Norsk Tidskr. f. Spr. iv 426 ; Indog.
Forsch. xxxix 220 . For the formfo-retarsee Ériu xii 222 ;
for forms withoutro-in answering a question seeibid. 219 .
O.Ir. and early Mid.Ir. forms:pres. 3 s. rud-finnadar, Ml.
46c24 .rofinnathar, LL 152b7 (=rofinnadar, Met. Dinds. iii
85448.107 ).3 pl. nadfinnatar , Ml. 99b10 .imp. 2 s. finta, LL
251a18 . TBC 199 , 649 .fintai, LU 7572 ( BDD 110 ).finna,
LU 5400 .3 s. finnad, Wb. 29a17 . SR 1691 .1 pl. finnamár,
LU 9212 ( FB 94 ).findamar, Ériu ii 102.1 .findam, TBC²
2361 .2 pl. finnaid, LU 4750 . TBC 728 .3 pl. finnatar, LU
3476 ( SC 25 ).findat, ZCP v 23.27 .subj. pres. 1 s. cofessur ,
5 SR 2883 . TBC 1399 .acht cofíasur , LU 3373 ( SC 16 ).Cf.
cia boḟessarur-sa (sic), LB 68b2 ( PH 5911 ).2 s. rofésser, Fél.
Feb. 4 ;dian fésser, Oct. 24 (:crésen,créssen).rofessir, Laws
iv 340.3 . confeser, Wb. 29a22 . confeiser, Sg. 209b30 .co
fesser , SR 1327 , 6113 .cofesara , PH 1813 , 6645 .3 s. con-
10festar, Wb. 12c38 . 28d11 . Ml. 51b10 .arinfestar , LU 3509
( SC 27 ).rofessadar, Rawl. 80b26 ( ZCP iii 24.2 ).diafessara ,
LL 285b49 ( KMMisc. 208.12 ).nadfiastar , Wb. 22d3 , is afut.
form,cf. nafiastar , Laws v 462.18 , and:nachfiasara , BR
234.22 .subj. impf. 1 s. rufessin, Ml. 59b1 .n[i]confessin,
15 117d4 .diafessaind , TBC 932 .2 s. rofesta-su, Wb. 10a10 .
diafesta-su , CRR 4 ( LL 171a37 ).3 s. raḟesed, Sg. 148a6 .
ro-das-fessad, SR 562 (: meth).rofessad, TBC 1766 .amal
nin-fessed , Wb. 16a2 .cinifesed , Thes. i 3.39 .1 pl. rofesmais,
LU 6760 ( BDD 28 ).cofesmais , 7069 ( BDD 73 ).2 pl. rufeste,
20 Wb. 9c8 .3 pl. cofestais , LU 1833 . TBC 62 .fut. 1 s. rofessur-
sa, Wb. 9a21 .roessur , IT ii1179.157 .3 s. rufiastar, Ml. 111c13 .
nifiastar , Wb. 12d18 .rofestar, 12d27 .1 pl. rofessammar, SR
1265 .2 pl. rofessid, Wb. 7d6 .3 pl. rofessatar, Ml. 69b1 .pret.
pres. 1 s. rofetar, Wb. 16d7 . LU 1285 .rafetar, TBC 60 .ni
25 fetar-sa , Wb. 28c10 .nifetor-sa , Thes. ii 241.10 ( Arm. 18a1 ).
nadetar-sa , LL 265b35 ( MU 26.26 ).nochonḟetur , LU 4761 .
do-fetar, Anecd. v 2.11 .fetar(in reply), Ériu xii 219 .2 s. in
fetar-su , IT ii1179.156 .nadfetar , TBC 930 .nachfetar-su ,
PH 1374 .nachfetura-sa , 719 ?1 s.).3 s. rofitir, Wb. 24d5 .
30 SR 2029 .amalrundfitir Ml 140c10 .lassero-ind-fiteir , ZCP
vii 481.27 ( Ench. Aug. 74b ).nifitir , Wb. 26d14 .1 pl. rofitem-
mar, Wb. 6c16 . 12c5 . 14b19 .-fitemmar, 12c6 . 16a29 . Sg.
32b5 .rofetamar, Trip. 42.11 . LU 5650 . TBC 1235 .rafetam-
már, LU 4973 .-fetammar, Ml. 37a10 . TBC 8 .-fetammár,
35 LU 1779 .2 pl. rofitid, Wb. 7d6 .rafitid-si, 18b9 .rofitis, 6a18 .
14c12 . (=rofitid-si).3 pl. rofitetar, 23b12 .-fitetar, 27a11 .
Ml. 95a12 .rafetatar, 54b14 .-fetatar, 96b2 .Cf. nietetár ,
Wb. 21d1 .rafetar, 28c12 .Pass. pres. s. -fintar, Sg. 200b13 .
Ml. 30a3 .pl. rofinnatar, Wb. 29a28 , 30 .subj pres. s. rufessar,
40 Ml. 24d17 .diafessar , 24d14 . Mid.Ir.rofestar, SM Facs. 33a1
( Laws ii 272.12 ).cufestur , Laws ii 6.29 Comm. co festar,
PH 7645 .subj. impf. con festa , Sg. 26b8 .cofessta , IT i
118.10 .pret. pres. s. rofess, Wb. 23b9 .rofes, Ml. 80b11 .
nadfess , 80b10 (see also1 fes).pl. rofessa, Lib. Hymn. i
4538.34 .nachfessa , 33 .nífessa , Fél. Prol. 76 .part. necess.
fissi, Thes. ii 308.18 .Vn. fis(O.Ir.fius)q.v.
In Mid.Ir. the vb. undergoes a twofold development:
(1)finn-` find out ' develops subj., fut. and pret. forms act.
and pass.:fut. 1 s. -finnub-sa, TBC 5759 .nifhindub-sa , PH
50 2017 .1 pl. -findfam, LL 268b39 ( MU 44.27 ).cond. 1 s. no
[ḟ]indfaind-sa , PH 20 .3 s. nafindfad , 2012 .Cf. fo-r-indfad,
LL 264a18 , 19 ( MU 16.9 , 11 ). ?pret. 3 s. rofind , BB 16b20 .3 pl.
nirofhinnsat , Marco P. 60 .vn. finnachtain,finnad. (2) The
subj. and fut. forms withfes-survive and are associated with
55the pret. in the sense ` know '. Inpret. pres. 1 s. -fetarcon-
tinues in use down to modern times, but analogous forms are
used in other persons:infetrais. . .?Rofetar┐ rofetadurfir
Eirenn, Acall. 7608 , 7610 .ma doḟedarais (2 s.), TBC p. 221
n. 2 .rofhetabar(2 pl.), PH 1710 .rosfetabair, Met. Dinds.
60 iii 280.54 .rofhitirset, Fl. Earls 10.22 .-fhitirset, 62.21 .
114.16 .fesbaide, LL 195a25 =fesfaide, Met. Dinds. iii 118.
105 , is a spuriousfut.form (2 pl.).
A. Rofinnadar,finnaid. (a) finds out,discovers,learns = Lat.
cognoscit, often implying effort or investigation, esp. in imper.;
65folld. by acc., dependent question or clause with or without
conj. In Glosses the pres.finn-, is used with force of a consue-
tudinal pres. or in general statements, Thurn. ZCP v 19 . In
older texts the subj. and fut. forms infes-are used in above
sense.in línn rofitir a peccad finnad a ccúrsagad let as many
70as know their sins [come to] know their reprimanding
, Wb.
29a17 .biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecthe rosíu docói grád
forru whose sins are found out , 29a28 .ni taibri grád for nech
confeser a inrucus, ib. 22 .mad ail duit co fesser olcc if thou
wouldst learn what evil is
, SR 1327 .ārim cech sluaig . . . ni
75fail nech rodasfessed who could find it out , 562 .ara feiser cenn
rig for aithech that thou mayest be able to tell (when) a king's
head (is) on a plebeian
, Laws iii 106.4 .ragat acht co fiasur in
n-airm atá provided I can find out where she is , SC 16 .dia
fessmais indni not-fóirfed, foghébta linn, IT i 122.21 .ro-
80finnathar a mathair-som inní sein discovers , ZCP viii 311.2 .
ni fetar, olsi, cid dernad de. Finta-su em, ol A. find out! LL
251a18 ( TBFr. 295 ).finta-ssu dún in tecam fo nā tecam, TBC
199 .ar co festa-su damsa cia airm,etc., 1728 .findtae dun
coich in choland find out for us whose body it is , Corm. Y 1018 .
85 finna dam indiu Meidb ┐ Fergus(=keep an eye on M. & F.
for me
), LU 5400 .finta lat in mór in marbad, RC xiii 84.23 .
finnta lat cid thacras Déicc, PH 1041 .fionnta libh cia
doroine,etc., BNnÉ 34.29 .a ēigsi . . . in findtai nō in feada-
bair | cidh ma tugsat can you find out or do you know , BB
42b48 =in fagbaid no in fetabair, LL 211a39 .findamar uait
5do ainm let us hear your name , Ériu ii 102.1 .fionnam uait
mar do íocais, TD 14.8 .
(b) the sense ` find out ' is not distinct from that of `knows' in
forms withfes-:amal ninfessed cách as though no one knew us
(gl.ignoti), Wb. 16a2 .can rufesta-su íccfe in mnái(=unde
10scis), 10a10 .ni ḟetar . . . dia fessaind conbeind na fatchius
if I had known , TBC 932 .ni fili nad fiastar sé hernaili déc na
filidechta he is no poet who does not know , ZCP vi 262.23 .dá
bhfeasadh . . . cá huair do thiocfadh, TSh. 2244 (=si sciret,
Matt. xxiv 43 ).
15(c) hence the development of new forms fromfinn-in the
sense ` find out ':cacha finnub-sa de . . . innisfithir duit-siu,
TBC 5759 .finnubh . . . an crích bús fhearr dhibh, RC xliii
64 § 64 .ná lí do mhnái co finnair do not accuse your wife until
you find out (her guilt)
, Acall. 582 .doberthar chucom-so nech
20rodfinnfa do ghalur(= who will diagnose), IT i 122.3 .cia
forindfad dún ca crích ina fuilem? LL 264a18 ( MU 16.9 ).
tri focuil for braich . . . co finntar a blas, Laws ii 242.12 .
B. ro-fitir (a) pret. pres. knows (gen. in sense of Lat.scire=
is aware of, seldomis acquainted with): is becc rofitemmar-ni
25i rrúnaib Dǽe, Wb. 12c5 .is moo rofhitir Dia rúine na ṅdoine
andaas rofhetatar fén, PH 5126 .rofhetar-sa at aiprisce na
doíne, 1425 .in fetar cid ruc . . .? Nicon fetar dost thou know
. . .? I know not
, IT ii1178.135 .in fetair-seo cia fath . . .? Nād
edar-sa, TBC² 2222 ,cf. TBC 2987 , 4251 .fer ná fetar claind
30no cenel dó of whom I know not his family nor his race , IT i
127.30 .ní ḟedabair an lá no an uair, RC xxv 388.18 . (b) with
force of pret. knew (common in Mid.Ir., esp. in3d pers.):
nachatfedir . . . atc[h]uitig fa thri he swore thrice that he knew
thee not
, ZCP x 47.13 .ni fhetar olc remisin I knew not evil
35until then
, LB 111a42 ( MacCarthy 56.1 ),cf. SR 1335 .raḟitir
co taetsad, TBC 3720 .ní fidir cuin doricfad a les, Ériu iii
154.13 . (c) thepret. rofindis occas. similarly used:Findia
.i. nech do ḟind Dia, Fél.² cxlvii ( Sep. 28 ).nír fhinnsad nār
iad sloigh na criche, Marco P. 150 .nir fhionnsat cia cúil . . .
40iona rabhsad na curpa, BNnÉ 184.22 .ro find [Pátraic]
combad si [Ard Macha] budh cenn . . . d'eccailsibh Erenn,
FM i 142.12 .
C. Rofess (a)isknown (perf. pres.):rofess i taig cáich, Wb.
23b9 .rocluinter in fogur ┐ ni fess cia rāide, IT i 144.11 .
45 innahi nach fessa . . . na hi rofessa(=quae latent . . . quae
leguntur), Lib. Hymn. i 38.33 , 34 . (b) with force of pret.was
known :is ed durumenatar-som nad fess in gním they thought
the deed was not known
, Ml. 80b10 .ba ceist mór la hUltu
náconfes céle for a selb that she was not known to have a husband ,
50 IT i 139.10 .rofes o Día do Senán andí-sin that was (made)
known to S.
, ZCP iii 222.8 . Common in parenthesis or cheville:
corbat rí rofes i ndiaid Cormaic, LL 147a17 ( PRIA iii 548 ).
ropo derg th'ḟaebur, rofess, | i mBeluch, RC xx 11 § 12 . The
neg.ní fesswas later analysed asadj.with cop., see1 fes.
55 D.Idiomatic uses: (a) withAR(FOR) of pers. finds out(knows)
against(to the discredit of):cor . . . ara findtar a saithed whose
fraud is discovered
, Laws iii 6.19 .elodhuch ar a finnathar one
found out to be a fugitive
, 60.1 .ná fionnadh a hathair fuirre
that her father might not find out (her guilt) , TFrag. 30.2 .rofes
60forsin fher-sin in gním, PH 948 =ō dafes, ZCP xiv 153.3
(YBL).aoinneach . . . ar a bhfionntaoi claonadh seanchusa
do dhéanamh, Keat. iii 511 . (b) of connubial intercourse:
mac mná nad festar céle who knows no spouse (of the Virgin
Mary), Im. Brain § 26 .ben nad fessed[sic leg.] nech do feraib
65hErend ríam, IT i 119.29 (LU).ni fetar ┐ ni fhindub-sa
ferscál, PH 2017 .dias inghean nar fhionn fear, Gen. xix 8 .
(c) doubtful:rofind . . . Dia suan . . . i nAdam, BB 16b20 =
immisit . . . soporem in A. , Gen. ii 21 (leg. rofóid?).
E.Some late exx.: (a)in fidir tú ? do you know ? Acall. 753 .
70 an bhféidir tú . . .? ZCP iv 404.4 ; 412.17 .ni fhéidir . . . acht
ro-fhéadar liom I do not know . . . but I do know , 412.19 .
cf. an fitir lat ? Snedgus u. M.R. 12.6 (b)1 pl. pret. fetamar
has given rise to theadv. eadamar surely,certainly , see TD ii
p. 200 , Desíd. p. 304 :e. nach diúltfa sibh, Content. xvi 104 .
75 eadamair eistfidhear linn, Dánta Grádha xvii 11 .