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A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U


1 ó prep.leniting follg. consonant and governing dat.
Forms O.Ir.ó(o);hó(ho), usual form in Ml.oa, Sg. 4b1 .
ua, 3b4 ; 112 ( Thes. ii 290.5 ),cf. huaitherrechtaigthib, 32b2 ;
40 ualailiu, 25b12 .
With art.:sing. ón(d),(h)uan(d): ónbunud, Sg. 33b2 . ón
chiunn, Wb. 22a17 . ondeacht, 9d10 . ónspirut, 15a12 . hond
airdbiu, Ml. 55b17 . huandimbud, 56b23 .uand aitherrech-
taigthiu, Sg. 32b7 . (with pron.í)ondí, 156a1 , 3 , b3 .uandí,
45 156b1 .huandí, 156b2 .
pl. onaib, Sg. 44a3 . Enchir. Aug. 75b ( ZCP vii 482 ).honaib,
Tur. 91 , 92 , 93 ( Thes. ii 491 ). Ml. 32b2 .huanaib, Sg. 33b8 .
hunaib, 32b6 .hona fuathaib, Enchir. Aug. 76a ( ZCP vii 482 ).
Mid.Ir.óna.
50With pron. suff.:1 s. (h)uaim(m).óim, Enchir. Aug. 75a
( ZCP vii 482 ), archaic.2 s. (h)uait.3 s m. (h)uad.ood, Camb.
37 a( Thes. ii 244.25 ); ?ōd( ód v.l.), Trip. 238.21 (archaic forms).
Mid.Ir.uad,huad.huadh, Hib. Min. 8.271 .uada, TBC 2251 ,
PH 841 , 908 , 2118 , 7636 , 7682 , 7782 , 8289 .uadha, 7722 .
55Lateruaid(h), mod.uaidh.3 s. f. (h)uadi. Mid.Ir.úade( huade
v.l.), Hy. v 36 ;uathi,uaithi.hude, Mon. Tall. 150.23 .1 pl.
(h)uain(n);huann, Wb. 4d9 .húan, Bcr. 32b3 .uanni, Wb.
12a12 ;huanni, 5a7 ;ónni, 4b19 ;onni, Camb. 38a ( Thes. ii
246.21 ). Mid.Ir.uann,uainn(uaind).úanna, Mon. Tall.
60 153.28 .2 pl. (h)uaib.3 pl. (h)uadib. Mid.Ir.uadib,uaidib,
uathib,uaithib;úathu, TBC 3557 , 5092 ;uathu, 3581 , 3630 ,
5064 .uathaibh,uatha, Keat.; mod.uatha.
With poss. pron.:1 s. óm;2 s. ót(later oftenód);3 s. óa,ó
(latter form common);3 pl. óa; uambraithrib, Wb. 34a6 . In
65late Mid.Ir. -n- is often inserted before the poss. of the 3rd
pers.:ó(=óa)ó, TBC 6159 =óna ó, H., Add.
With rel. pron.: óa n , ua n , ó n : hoarícc, Wb. 5c16 . huambí,
Tur. 10. huan-erbirmis, Ml. 135d3 .hua ndirrudigeddar, Sg.
33a23 . hon-eroimer, Ml. 17c7 .ho torgab, 32a23 .ó n-aidil-
70cnigthir, Hib. Min. 8. 245 .cia o-rb halachta, Lat. Lives 65.8
( LB 62a22 ).
With cop.3 s.:ondid, Wb. 12d23 .honid, Ml. 51c2 . Mid.Ir.,
onid, BColm. 32.25 .
In late Irish lenition is arbitrary in stereotyped phrases
75like:ó sin ale, see TD ii 264 n. § 36 . Occas. folld. by acc. pl.
in Mid.Ir.:o marbu, PH 1073 , 1854 ,etc.
In meaning, corresponds in general to Lat.a, abor to the
ablative case, in Glosses used to represent either. Hence by
analogy afterarbeir biuth= Lat.utitur:ho n-erberad biuth
(gl.qua oratione sit usurus), Ml. 48a5 ,cf. 48b12 .hua n-erbirmis
biuth which we spent, 135d3 (gl.ex illo tempore quo degebamus
[in Aegypto] `in which we lived'; the glossator perhaps mis-
5understood the Lat. construction).Cf.also Hib. Min. 13.438 :
aranni arbar bith inn aesa dilmain on bethaid shuthain=eo
quod scilicet vitâ aeternâ fruitur;`because the lawful people
enjoy life everlasting
', Meyer, but the construction is not clear.
Similarly Enchir. Aug. 79b :ut ratione utatur(.i. o cheill).
10 IDenoting separation from (lit. or fig.), after vbs. (a) of
motion:tóiniud flatho ó róma[nib], Wb. 26a5 .eirg ón muicc !
get away from, IT i 104.13 ,cf. do duit uaim be off! 214.19 .
imreitís úathu ┐ chuccu to and fro from them, TBC 3557. na
daíne claenus o t'aithnib who swerve from, PH 7303. atracht
15[Christ] . . . o marbu, 1854 .regaid cech n-olc uaib, 2102 .
dochuáid úait in curathmír you have lost, FB 43. go rachadh
a thir ┐ a dhúthaidh uaidh, ZCP ii 558.27 . Putting,sending,
casting(away),etc.: léic uáit inna biada mílsi put away, Wb.
6c7 .ros-lá úad uli sent them all away, Mon. Tall. 23. sín in
20láimh uait stretch forth thy hand, Ériu iv 118.13 .focheird a
adbena . . . úad, TBC 1076. sróna na n-ech . . . ac súgud grene
┐ gaíthe uathu ┐ chuccu exhaling and inhaling, 5064 .
(b) taking from: oc tabairt tana bó uait carrying off thy herd,
IT i 101.24 .dia ructhar ar mna doera uand, TBC2 1130 (=úan
25LU).co mbert a mac huaithi, ZCP viii 310.37 .dobered . . .
búaid ṁbáire . . . ona tri cóictaib maccaem, TBC 971. cidh
bé doberadh buaidh catha ona naimdib, Maund. 10.
(c) desisting,hindering: anad o pecdaib, PH 3455. in rí
tairmisces a chloidem o fhuil(=qui prohibet . . . a sanguine),
30 4213 .
(d) preserving,delivering,etc.: condanfírianichthi úadib
(sc.a peccatis nostris), Wb. 2d14 .dlegar do neuch a chongmail
uadi to keep away from her, Mon. Tall. 14. dia coimet on
índdirge, PH 1009. ros-glan Dia in tempul on uli élned, 2098 .
35 ro saerait . . . o bas, 412 .ro thuaslaicset . . . popul na ngénnte
o fhógnum hídal, 4565 . Similarly after adjs. denoting exemp-
tion,etc.:bid slan tú o fholaid Christ`free from the enmity of
C.
', PH 803. isam nemchintach-sa o fhuil in duine noim,
3282 .Cf. is fáss ó comarbaib féin hí(the steading) is empty of
40its own inheritors
, BColm. 78.14 .
IIOrigin, source from which someth. comes or is obtained:
(a) after copula or subst. vb., expressed or understood:is
húad cach n-ecne all wisdom is from Him, Wb. 7c15 .rop
saiget húan fri demnai, Hy. i 20. is ond nemud a n-incoimet
45`they are to be minded by the "nemedh"-person', Laws iv 180.20 .
is eiric tairsce uadaib and`it is the fine . . . that is due from them
for it
', 138.8 Comm. ná bith fochunn uaimm fein dom
aecṅduch let me give no cause to speak evil of me, Wb. 11c1 .
gach lá saire er a fhuil cengul on eglais(= which the Church
50enjoins), PH 7373. na feich uilet uad asa faithchi which are
due from him
, Laws iv 28.15 Comm. After a noun:furóil
serce ho Pool doib-som abundance of love from P., Wb. 14d30 .
in fírinne hó hiris(=ex fide iustitia), 4d23 .gním uad feisin
foir feisin action from himself on himself, Sg. 209b12 .
55(b) after vbs. of motion:comma rí far ṅdígal huaim-se that
vengeance for you may happen from me
, Wb. 5d37 .ni fil uaidib
som o nach ri(ónach ricLU)there is not one of them who cannot
do it
(lit.from whom it arrives not), TBC2 684. ní tharnic úan
do rád(=we failed to announce it), TBC 645. rangus ó
60Iruath 'na diaig(=Herod sent messengers after him), ZCP
viii 115.1 .
(c) sending;bringing,taking :foídis E. techta úad fo Erind,
IT i 118.32 .leig uait misi d'indsaigi na Teibi send me, TTebe
1025 .berar a n-imchumarcc huáib let a salutation be taken
65from you to them
, Wb. 7b4 .ructha eipistil uad fon uli thalam,
PH 1171. doberdis audpartai dosom ó Máolrúoin, Mon.
Tall. 10.
(d) receiving,getting: in doínecht araróit som ónni which
he hath assumed from us
, Wb. 4b19 .ni hetus huaim fess ri fer,
70 IT i 120.22 .fogebtís mor d'ulcc ona naimtiu, PH 4049. ros-
cendaig on Iudaide had bought it from, 55 . With ellipse:is ail
dona mnáib ind eoin ucut úatsiu the women would like to get
those birds from you
(= would like you to get them those
birds), SC 5. Analogous:cech bo . . . no-mbligtis da trian
75blechta d'immarcraid uadib, IT i 72.6 .forodamair guasachtu
. . . o latrandaib, PH 1659.
(e) asking,desiring: ro thothlaigset fortacht o Dia, PH
6292 .dom íarraidh úam ar éládh asking me to elope, Ériu ix
4.40 .cid is ailicc dúib húam? what do ye desire of me? iv
140.5 .
(f) hearing,learning,etc.: amal bid o Dia rachlóithe, Wb.
24d21 .cech dírúais ro Columb ó chille cualammar that we
5have heard from Colum C.
, RC xx 258 ( ACC 64 ) =o Chollum
Ch., LU 866. sochide rodá-scrib húan many have transcribed
it from us
, Bcr. 32b3 .uadh do sgriobhadh i lleabraib it was
written down from his teaching
, ZCP viii 116 x .is áil a fhis
uaib I wish to find out from you, PH 1067. indis do cách
10creitfes uait, 2395 .
(g) this is prob. the orig. sense after vbs. of giving. In later
Mid.Ir. and in Mod.Ir.óis commonly used with the reflex.
pron. after such vbs.damadh leis righe an c[h]uiccidh . . .
dobheradh d'eicsibh uado he would give it away to poets, Sitzb.
15Pr. Akad. 1919 v 93 § 21 .da tucadh duine cach uile festa
uáidh, Maund. 181. tabraid dam in n-aiscid sin uaib, TTebe
3314 .an cath dobhéaridís uatha nó an braighde whether they
should give battle or give hostages
, Ériu i 81 § 14. Similarly
after vbs. of saying:innis-[s]iu uait dam tell me, Ériu v 26.14 .
20 inneosad uaim daoibh-se sain, Keat. ii 1645 (poem).
(h) to express derivation, descent:[regno] ondí asrex (gl.
a rege), Sg. 156a1 .bidtitioatinne ┐titulushuadh` titio' is a
firebrand and `titulus' (is derived) from it
, Hib. Min. 8.271 .is
úadib Crist(=ex quibus [est] C. secundum carnem), Wb. 4c2 .
25 madgénair ó Mairi, Fél. Prol. 251. in iat a tustige o ṅgenir?
PH 2292. saíthi ór chin Ó Caímh from whom O'Keeffe has
sprung
, Ériu iv 218 § 26. Gaidel glas . . . o tat Gaidil, MacCarthy
288.1 .bid uad Heriu co brath Érin will be (inherited)
by his posterity, RC xxiv 192.9 .is húait bias flaith for hÉirinn
30co bráth, ZCP viii 318.3 .Dondchad ní fil huad D. has left no
posterity
, 296.18 .dia mbad o Uib Neill . . . in rige if the king-
dom were held by one of the O'Neills
, Ériu v 232.11 .
(i)after vbs. of naming, calling,after,from: o máthair ro
hainmniged(of Concobar mac Nessa), Ériu iv 22 § 1. do-
35bretha ainm fair o anmum in tsrotha, RC vi 177.110 .an t-én
ceileabhrus do chách | uadh sloinnfidher é(i.e.he will be named
Lonán from `lon' a blackbird), ZCP viii 109.22 .uait do
gairmeadh ainm an taoisigh, Keat. Poems 1530.
(j)in sensehailing from,coming from: fer . . . on Antuaig
40 a man of Antioch, PH 284. on Effis dam I am from Ephesus,
1058 .in sab . . . ó Óendruim, Fél. June 23 .in maccáin ó
Bethil, Dec. 28. Occas. after titles:cing o Nuibie king of
Nubia
, ZCP vi 56.24 .iarla o Barbuicc earl of Warwick, 24.16 .
(analogically)iarlacht o Bharbhuicc, ib. 4 .
45(k) used with refl. pers. pron.on thepartof; ofoneself, of
one's ownaccord :ni uaínn fesine ataam for tectiri(gl.non
quod sufficientes simus cogitare aliquid a nobis), Wb. 15a13 ,
perh. rather to be referred to (c).huadib féissna . . .non
ab alio , gl.per se [pati demonstrant], Sg. 144b1 .línaid [na
50dabcha] uatha fein fill of themselves, Maund. 18. osclaigid . . .
na doirsi uathaib fein, RC xii 334.3 .Cf. méin mhaith uaibh-
se gé do fhuair, | uaidh féin as uaisle flaith Fáil is noblest on his
own account
, Ir. Monthly 1919, 399.16 .
Analogous are the follg. exx. in whichóis used after an
55adj.:gebe duine deradh . . . nach fior uaim a raidhim, Rel.
Celt. ii 292 y .amhnáirech uan aighed ort it is presumptuous
of us to face thee
, IGT Dec. ex. 1388. Cf. na daeine onab
eolach leabur do legadh who know how to read(?), Maund. 117
(leg. donab?).
60 III Cause(closely akin topreceding): is o aicniud pectho
doforchosalsam it is from (our) sinful nature that we have trans-
gressed
, Wb. 21b4 .is borb . . . cech duine on gentligecht
`through paganism every one becomes rude', PH 725. is ó
duthracht a menman badéin dochoid(=ductus voluntate
65animi), 4742 .relta . . . onid sorcha in bith, BColm. 32.25 .
bid subach sind ma dubach ind on aithrigi I shall be happy if
I am sorrowful through penitence
, Arch. iii 234 § 8. an duine
chuimetus a run ona aithne de who keeps a secret because
bidden to do so
, Ériu v 128 § 31. dergfait cloidbe . . . beit úada
70gan maithius they will gain nothing thereby, ZCP iii 32.18 .
Of persons (regarded as cause of a certain state):cia orb
halachta in chumal, Lat. Lives 65.8 .fá torrach uad fein í,
TTebe 4800 .is imda ledartha ┐ cuirp tholla annso uadha
(= he has left many mangled corpses), ZCP xiii 244.11 .an
75cúiger druadh . . . an cuigead uadh dob ḟuigleach the province
was left a remnant by them
, Ériu iv 222 § 38. gan fear 'na
bheathaidh aguinne ó Chonn is óa thriathaib, ML 38.2 .
IV Materialfrom which someth. ismade: dorigéni Dia corp
duini ó ilballaib, Wb. 12a29 .ainmidhi cumuscdha ó dhuine
80┐ ó tharb(of the Minotaur), ZCP iv 239.3 . To this head
belongs the idiomatic use ofdo-airissetharwithó= consists
of (in),prob. an imitation of Lat.consistere, constarewith abl.:
is hi ernaigthe thairises ón airem rúnda(=oratio consistens
consecrato numero), PH 8026. in tíí tairises . . . o dib n-aicen-
85taib .i. hon doenacht ┐ o diadacht, 6782 ;cf. 7091 .co tarsidar
o .x. tetaib(the harp) consists of ten strings, Hib. Min. 1.20 ,
cf. 2.25 .is on deda-sa immefolangar cach dune findbathach
(=de his duobus beatus homo efficitur), 13.432 . Analogous:o
thochaiter . . . in bliadain uile o chóic lathib sescait [leg.-at]
ar tri cetaib(=per trecentos . . . dies annus ducitur), PH 4934.
5 V Instrument : (a) in strict sense:a n-asberthar ho giun
what is uttered by mouth, Wb. 5d14 .ni labrátar uili ó ilbélrib
all do not speak with many tongues, 12b22 .in sians ondid
accobor limsa ícc cáich by which I wish to save every one, 12d23 ,
cf. 5c16 .arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin
10 which they do with those members, Ml. 56b3 .combad ó lémum
[léimim] dochúatár . . . tairse by leaping, FB 88. timchillid in
coimdiu in cuthi o níul, PH 1223. in tíí rot-biath sib o maind
nemda, 2825 .comba soleir duit o shuilib corpardha he, ZCP
iv 384.10 .do chomarthaigh ó comhartha na croiche . . . é
15féin, BNnÉ 275 § 257. ros-eitseat o eirreadaibh dereoilibh
clad themselves in wretched garments, CCath. 1073. ro ghabus
oca cendsugud o briathraib áilghinaib, Ériu v 148.36 .la-
brastar o bérlu aiṅglecdha, Ériu ii 100 § 7.
(b) after vbs. of filling, satisfying and kindred adjs.:in tí
20nach sástar o brethir Dé, PH 8381. ro línais mo meis o cech
maith, 1359 .lan o rath in spiruta noim, 2258 .saithech o
began satisfied with little, Ériu v 128.1 .coimlinta o dhaoinibh,
Fl. Earls 258.2 .
(c) inadverbialexpressions denotingway,manner,atten-
25dant circumstances: o nach mud etir(gl.omni modo), Sg.
25b11 .o tri modaib ordaigther in sollamainsea, PH 3600.
o béss saegulla in secular fashion, Trip. 80.24 .munat ón
chéill-si adeirthear in this sense, IGT Introd. § 28. gan
shunnradh . . . ó shunnradh in an indefinite sense . . . in a
30definite one
, § 73. as leó o cert an tsealb theirs by right, Leb.
Gab. i 254 n. 1 .go bhfuil agam ó dhligheadh . . . léim thar
uimhir éigcinnte that I have a right to skip, Content. vi 86.
VIAgent (an extension of II): (a) with passive vb.:cf.
Enchir. Aug. 75a ( ZCP vii 482 ): quaestio . . . mihi(.i.dativus
35.i. óim)enodanda. amal non-nertar-ni ho dia, Wb. 14b13 .
intí on gontar nech by whom some one is slain, Ériu iii 140.182 .
tinólfaider uanni a muster will be made by us, CRR 22 (p. 32.6) .
coro gabad o Iúdaidib ┐ coro crochad o míledu, PH 2363.
cethri cinid . . . ó ngabtha rigi in domain, Ériu iv 174.5 .
40 forfemdeass o neoch . . . techt 'na adhuicch none was able to
oppose him
, RC xiii 8.7 .ro forcóngradh ó Ṡenchan for filedaibh
Erenn, Arch. iii 4.21 .
Similarly with part. and participial adj.:adib scripthi-si
ón spirut ye are written by the Spirit, Wb. 15a12 .ba hada-
45mraigthi . . . he ona hapstalu admired by, PH 685. Cf.also:
peacadh Mhuire . . . ro ba ghlan uile ón Fhíréan, A. Ó Dálaigh
li 10 (=ro ba ghlanta).mar tá tú uainne`the state I have
brought Thee to
', Dán Dé xviii 11.
(b) after verbal and kindred nouns (a later use than that of
50 DO, the prep. commonly employed in Mid.Ir.):adrad in Maic
óna trí druídib, Ériu ii 198.20 .arna rád ó tri húgdaraib,
BColm. 2.11 .bás Anmchadha . . . ó Mhathghamhna, Ériu i
102.4 .trí conganta na nguthaidhe ó chonnsuinibh three cases
in which vowels are reinforced by consonants
, IGT Introd. § 18.
55 gním an cét laí on dúilem, RC xxiv 372.10 .ata i cúibrech o
ainglib Dé is held in chains by, PH 2038. a dhochar ón
drochshaoghal`his sufferings from the cruel world', Dán Dé
iv 12 .
VIIIn partitive sense, generally after an indef. or demonstr.
60pron. or numeral; in early Ir. only before pronouns,DEbeing
used before subst.la nech huáin any one of us, Wb. 6b20 .
cách uáib, 25a34 .rann uáibsi, 14c15 .is aen uaib nom-
braithfi-sea, PH 2372. dias uaib two of you, Ériu i 118 § 10.
cechtar bhuaind both of us, ZCP xiii 232.15 .antí bus coscrach
65uaib whichever of you conquers, TTebe 4392 .gibé uaibh lén
háil coinntinn, Content. xxviii 59. tuarustal . . . da gach en-
brucchaid uathaibh, ZCP viii 116 § 15. cethrar o marcachaib,
Anecd. i 10.5 .Maeldúin . . . ordan Gaedel o cleircib the glory
of the G. among churchmen
, RC xvii 397.3 .
70 VIIIUsed with a noun to limit or define the application of
a preceding adj. or noun:
(a) in respect of,with regard to , gen. after adj.:basa iudide
ó écosc . . . nipsa iudide ó béssaib a Jew in appearance . . . a
Jew in customs
, Wb. 10d34 , 35 .marb hó thoil cholno dead as
75to the desire of the flesh
, 19a17 .it hǽ ata dirgi ho chridiu
upright in heart, Ml. 56a20 .cennais o menmain ┐ o fordreich,
PH 1974. ba genmnaid o curp he, RC xii 334 z .do bhí . . .
láidir ó bhríoghaibh, ITS xvi 2.20 .ro ócc o aeis too young in
years
, BCC § 63. gerb fada C.C. uatha ó corp . . . do bi sé faríu
80ó spiraid far from them in body . . . with them in spirit, § 274.
cách fria chárus ó [oa,v.l.] thaig | inna árus ard-oenaig`each
in due order by rank
', Met. Dinds. iv 150 y (`the house he
lived in marked his social standing,' note).Cf. iii 368.41 :
Medb ropo thúalnge ó [oa,v.l.] thaig=who was competent by
85virtue of her rank, descent
? Similarly after a vb. or vn.:nech
immaruimdethar o banscáil`who transgresses in respect of a
woman', Ériu vii 140.1 .ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad`for
accompanying someone in a sin
', Mon. Tall. § 41. serc De o
huilib nerttaib, o chridhi, o gnim, Arch. iii 312 § 1. In the
follg. exx. the primary sense is locative:don leith ó tír on the
5land side
, CCath. 1740. do leth ón muir,from the sea side,
1909 .
(b) about,concerning :don badbscel ro innis o chelib the
tragic tale he told of his companions
, FB 70. nídat fíra na
scéla sin on fhir út, PH 2668. ná rab tathmet o Blathmac
10 that there should be no memory of B., BColm. 20.10 .nirb ail
léo labairt o maith to speak of good, Aisl. Tund. 114 § 2. gan
(ó bheith aige) . . . gan (ó bheith na égmhais) `gan'[= O.Ir.
ocon]of what one has . . . `gan'[= O.Ir.cen]of what one is
without
, IGT Introd. § 67.
15 IX Used ofdistance(intime,spaceororder), todenotethe
initial pointofmeasurement.
(a) of time:ó thossuch from the beginning, Wb. 7b11 .huand
uair nundabertatar filistindi from the time the Philistines
carried it off
, Ml. 82d9 .ón challaind co alaili, Fél. Prol. 325.
20 ón chind bliadna ca chéile from one end of the year to the other,
CRR 11. ó luan taite ṡamna co taite n-imbuilc, TBC 2900.
in cóicatmad laa o dómnach na hesergi, PH 5414. o Adam co
tanic Christ, 3665 .niconfacae óa gein gusan aidchi sin, Mon.
Tall. § 67. ni ro gab nech aili rigi nErenn o Niall ille from (the
25time of) N. on
, RC xxiv 202.11 . So in a number of stereotyped
expressions:ó chéin long ago,ó chianaib, ó sin (ṡin) amach
(anall, ille) from that time forth,ón tráth-sa.
Rarely used to express duration of time:ataat alai[li] feid-
ligte ho aimsir who endure awhile, Ml. 21d4 (=ad tempus aliquos
30manere). ex parte.i. o aimsir bicc . . . .i.tempore tantum , Wb.
5c2 .not-cloifither anosa ┐ scērthar frit do cumachtu . . . o
chéin`for long', PH 3890 (elsewhere in PHó chéin=long ago;
a mistake forco cian?). Of point of time:olaili laithiu(=in
die quadam), Lat. Lives 16.13 .olailiu domnuch, 17.10 (=olaili
35laithi, Trip. 124.16 ;olaili domnach, ib. 7 ).
(b) space:noí n-imdada ó thenid co fraigid, FB 2 ( LU 8051 ).
ó ó go erboll, TBC 6159. is cían uait airm in-das-fil, 884 .
téora fuithairbi on tig, FB 20. mile ceimenn seachtair o
ballaigip na Romha, Fl. Earls 194.16 .atá flaith adamra fri
40gnúis do gnúis dóib úathib sáerdes south-east of them(lit.from
them south-eastwards
), FA 5. is fada daine ┐ cathracha buain
[= uain], ZCP vi 293.10 . In later Mid.Ir.óis replaced to a
great extent byóthá,q.v.
(c) of series of other kinds:ro hinnisidh a scélu o thus co
45derith, IT i 128.10 .cech olc dogné nech o bic co mor, PH
6432 .réalt is mo shoillsigheas . . . on ghealaigh amach(i.e.
next to the moon), Corp. Astron. 80.27 .idir dhéirc . . .
urnuighthe aifreann is gach deighghníomh oile ó shoin amach
all other good works besides, Keat. iii 3040.
50(d) with reflex. pron. after vbs. of seeing, viewing,at (an
indefinite) distance from oneself
:adchonnairc uadha an dabach
he saw before him, Ériu iii 156 x .docunncadur longa uadha
furan muir, ZCP vi 294.15 .tiagam . . . do deiscin uainn for
fertais Locha E., TBC2 602. o thuc aichne air uada when he
55had recognized him some way off
, TTebe 3299 .ba ler disi
tochim na sluag uaithi she could clearly see the hosts advancing,
2649 .dochonnarc uaim . . . maighdean, Keat. Poems 410.
Similarly after a noun:tecoscis in gilla dó Ulaid ar cach leth
úad pointed out (the places in) Ulster on every side, TBC 1212.
60 na maic sin a hÉrnaib úan from the distant Erainn, Met.
Dinds. iii 70.57 .dochonncadar . . . ar chnocaibh uathaibh iad
on hills in the distance, ML 62.10 .a léine as leascc leam húaim
`his tunic I am loth to behold', KMMisc. 348.9 .
XAfter noun or vb. expressing want, (a) of the person
65needing (an extension of I):nad rabi ní ba esbaid úad that he
lacked nothing
, FB 4. comtis failtigide [sic leg.] d'fagbail [sic
leg.] stelli a hesbaid uathib that they might rejoice the more to
find the star because it had disappeared from them
, PH 7013.
nach tessta do treigib rigachta uadha that he lacked no royal
70characteristics
, RC x 182.4 . In late lang. common after subst.
vb.:atá ní uaim I amwithout; Iwant :ná bí uaim acht agam
`be mine, keep not aloof', A. Ó Dálaigh l 17. biaidh uainne go
bráth ag Íor tús ar gcreach we have forfeited for ever to I. the
leadership of our raids
, Content. xxviii 31. isin laithe . . . in
75badh móo ro baoi úaidhibh for chalma do dhenomh when they
had most need to show valour
, Hugh Roe 316.19 (f. 82b) .an ni
a bhios uaidhe d'faghail, Luc. Fid. 200.6 .Cf. cia hé an duine
. . . do rachadh gan ádhbhar mor uaidh air gusan áit a mbiadh
pláigh? without strong reason for it, MacAingil 211.8 .
80In follg. exx. the prep. is equivalent to the dat. incommodi:
duine . . . óna bhfuair moran da cairdib . . . bās many of whose
friends had died
, BCC § 109. in airdríghan ro bo marbh uadha
féin whom he had lost by death, CCath. 1454. gur leor uireas-
bhadh Thuaithe R. .i. O Flannagáin do mharbhadh uatha
85 the loss sustained by the T.R. through the fall of O'F., Maguires
of F. § 17.
(b) rarely of the thing needed; this construction seems con-
fined to the vb. adilcnigidir and may be an imitation of the
Lat. constr. ofegere, indigerewith abl.ata coicthi ón aidilcnig-
thir ecna ┐ latar na psalmb five things which the knowledge . . .
5of the psalms requires
, Hib. Min. 8.245 .ni aidilcniget o nach
airchisecht, Alex. 851 ,cf. 849 .co ro aidilgniged Ísu o fortacht
aingel(=indigebat adiutorio angelorum), PH 4841 ,cf. 6256 .

2 ó conj.Orig. the prep.ógoverning a subord. noun-clause
and itself belonging in syntax to the main clause, but later
10felt as a conj. belonging to the subord. clause. See Thurn.
Hdb. § 466 , Ped. ii § 511 Anm. It must be distinguished from
ó n-(= prep.+ rel.) preceding a subord. clause,e.g. hua mbi
from which is, Tur. 10 ;hua n-erbirmis, Ml. 135d3 ;ho torgab
whereby he committed, 32a23 . The formuais not used as conj.
15(butcf. hu-batar, Ml. 63a4 ).
Lenites the follg. vb.:o chretsit, Wb. 31c7 .o chaithes, PH
4799 .o dhoriachtatar, 190 . In Mid.Ir. often causes elision of
initial a in vbs. compounded withad- (at-):otchí, PH 4606.
otbert, 6566 .otchuala, 1008 .ótconnairc, TBC 3889 ,cf. 3913
20(both St.); but:o atchuala, PH 491 ,cf. 96 , 100 .o atcondcatar,
355 .Cf. otnocbat(=o don-ocbat), TBC 5674 , an analogous
form. Occas. eclipsis occurs in pret. forms of the subst. vb.:
o mboi, PH 689. ó mbátar, 5035 ,cf. 1719 , 5110 .
Folld. by the deuterotonic form of compd. vbs.:ó dom-
25anicc, Wb. 12c9 .ó do-ánic, Ériu iv 28.18 .o doraitne, PH
1349 . Later conjunct forms come into use,ó thánic,etc.
The preverbroretains its accent afteró,except with cop.
(see below); but:ór fhég, LL 142a11 .
With the pres. tense of the subst. vb.óis employed like a
30preverb, forming a virtual compd.:1 s. ót[h]ú, LU 2985 , LL
249b3 ( TBFr. 133 ), ZCP vii 301 § 10. 3 s. óthá(which early
develops into a prep., seeóthá).
With cop.:pres. 3 s. o as, LU 1514 ( MU 52.8 ); generally
with elisionós;ósa(common in PH and later Mid.Ir.).pret.
35 1 s.?obsa, IT iii 68.3 . (withro-)or bam, IT i 120.23 . LL
282a12 .3 s. órba, BColm. 96.4 .3 pl. obtar, ZCP xii 378.22 .
With neg.:ó nach (ná); ó nár.
IAs temporalconj.,the orig. sense beingdistance froma
certain point(event,etc.)expressed by the subord. clause.
40(a) theó-clause states the point of time at which the action
(state) of the main clause began, since , Lat.ex quo.Folld. by
a pret. in O.Ir. (in Mid.Ir. sometimes perf.).hó boí mo chland
is oc frecur ceill Dae atáa since my clan came into being, it has
been engaged in worshipping God
, Wb. 29d6 .hu batar sidi i
45nEgipt(gl.ab Egypto [usque adhuc]), Ml. 63a4 .tri chét bliadna
. . . o bāte and Eocho find since E. was drowned, LU 2986. ni
ḟuilet trí thráth and o thucus-[s]a trí laíchcind uait, IT i 102.9 .
cosindiu . . . ó gabus-sa Crúachna, FB 44. atú-sa sunn . . .
o rogenar since my birth, IT i 120.20 .atu-sa or bam noídiu cot
50ḟognam since my childhood, LL 282a12 .coic laithe deg o do
benadh iad from the time they were cut, Fl. Earls 196.1 .ní
tháinig fear ó fearadh an díle, Keat. Poems 822.
When the action of theó-clause is conceived as still con-
tinuing, the pres. tense is used:ó tú-sa isin dún-sa as long as
55I have been here
, LL 249b3 ( TBFr. 133 ).tri chét bliadna o tú
sund, LU 2985. is cían o as fásach it has long been waste, 1514
( MU 52.8 ).nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí | o tú ar síth mo
Righ amuigh as long as I am outside my King's peace(?), ZCP
vii 301 § 10 .
60(b) the action of theó-clause is anterior to that of the main
clause, when,after = Lat.postquam; with a vb. in perf. tense.
(If the vb. of the main clause is past, that of theó-clause
represents pluperf.)o adcuaid ruín ícce in cheneli doíne . . .
asber iarum after declaring the mystery . . . he then says, Wb.
65 21d11 .ho desid forlán . . . tanicc iarumgratia when [sin] had
been superabundantly established . . . then came `gratia'
, 3a7 .
ho imrordai nech . . . dolbthai [= dolbaith-i] dano iarum,
Pcr. 64a1 ( Thes. ii 229.32 ).o desid ógi na cretmi la firu Herend
and ┐ o ro pridcastar Patraic soscela dóib . . . conid íarum ro
70chreti Loegaire, LU 9735. o ro glé a imrádud . . . dolluid, FB
8 .o ro taisfeóin Bricriu in fled . . . forócrad do B., ib. 13 .is
mor for fācsam do maith | o ro chrādsam ar n-ardflaith, SR
1486 .o doriachtsat . . . ro chelebairset a tratha, PH 579. o
atchuala in ríg na gaire . . . ro iarfacht, 395 .otrubairt in
75demun sin, boí ina thost iarum, 1980 .o dubairt A. sin, ra
laigastair . . ., TTebe 1215 .ó ro aitcheatar ainm Colmáin . . .
ternatar slán, BColm. 94.12 .
Folld. by perfective pres.:o doréccu Cuirrech cain . . .
dobeir mac[h]dath when I gaze upon the fair Curragh, Hail
80Brigit § 3 ( LL 49b15 ).is ann is lestar spirto noib in duini, o
dondigsed na sualchi tar esse na ndualche when virtues come
to him instead of vices
, ZCP iii 454.26 (perf.-pres. subj. =
dodigthet, R). In PH 928 :o ro dígset for a sét, the vb. is
prob. to be regarded as a spurious perfect.
85(c) the action of theó-clause is simultaneous with that of
the main clause, when,as soon as,often while ; folld. by pres.,
past and fut. tenses. In Mid.Ir. therel.form of 3 s.pres.and
fut. is commonly used in this sense. With pres.:ticc mo
tráth ó ticc an samh when summer comes, ZCP viii 222 z .
otchí Isu in ṅduine ic comallnad a thimna . . . faídid chuice
5na suailche, PH 4606. o thecait na sualchi . . . dochumm in
duine, fuaslaicit a chorp ┐ a anmain, 4615 .o dfhéchas [leg.
déchas] in fíren brechtrad na sualach . . . togaid in sualaig,
7101 .o chaithes in choland in mbiad, is sásad . . . di he, 4799 .
With subj. pres.:cuin is tualaing coisc alanali? O chanasca
10[cutnascav.l.] fadesin when is he able to control another? When
he can control himself
, ZCP iii 451.26 .
With fut., answering to a Lat. fut. perf., Eng. pres. or
perf.; common in Laws Comm.beirid cach dibad . . . o bias
in cuic raith cetach acu ┐ o bus ac oen flaith beit`when they
15have the five stocks of a hundred head of cattle and are under one
chief
', Laws iv 42 y = Stud. in E. Ir. Law 149.5 .forrgid as
anim dō o rachas as a daghfēr fein(the calf) is called `f.' when it
leaves its own good grass
, 110.29 (t.).o roinnfes in tir, nochan
egin do . . . when he has divided, 8.4 .o fasbus [= fásfas]
20fogail when damage arises, 8.12 .donither trocaire ris o rosia
lan in marbhta`when (the fine) reaches the full amount for kill-
ing
', 250.2 .is e dobēra ola a throcaire do cách . . . o ragus fen
artús fo baithis, PH 3813.
With past, gen. to express an action (state) during which
25something occurred:o mbatar na fir isin uamaid, . . . tanic in
t-imper, PH 1002. o mbatar icon cosnum sin, ro pritchastar
P. dóib, 1719 .Cf. 5035 .o rabadar som amlaid sin . . .
adchualadar, TTebe 2938 .
IIAs causalconj., as,since,inasmuch as (not in Glosses);
30esp. common with cop.
tescthar a thengaid o na hadrand na dee since he does not
worship the gods
, PH 733. atbert in popul . . . in t-apstal do
crochad o nar fhétsat bás ele dó, 2555 .o nach fil nech ar
slicht Ádaim acht braithre since all of Adam's race are brethren,
35 7502 .ní dhéan ris acht léimreach tar líne . . . ó nach féadtar
réad do ríomh air as it is impossible, Keat. Poems 755. os e
in t-anumm is uaisle since the soul is the nobler, PH 7367. os
iat na céimenda since these are the steps, 7807 .ro chedaigset
do Sir B. imdecht, os edh ba tol do, ZCP iv 383.26 .os olc bó
40. . . do goit, is messa . . . duine do goit since it is wrong . . . it is
worse
, PH 7778. osa dáll a chride, berid diabul leis . . . he,
7755 .dentur do thoil féin dim-sa, osa me dorinde in gnim,
ZCP vi 277.12 .osa lim Albain cen fheill as I am ruler of Alba,
MR 60.15 = FDG 518. osa cara don naduir an fuil since blood
45is the friend of nature
, Rosa Ang. 18.5 .