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A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U

pron. of 1 pers. sing.
65 I Independent (accented) forms: 1 nom. s. mé; with empha-
tic suffix messe, meisse, mese (Glosses), in Mid.Ir. also mis(s)e,
the common later form. pl. sni (? only found as emphasizing
particle , Wb. 15c20 ), ni (? see Wb. 19d8 quoted below). (empha-
tic) snisni, Wb. 6c22 , Ml. 32a20 , 93c11 , 102c2 , 127c2 ; snissni,
70 Wb. 23d23 . snissi (leg. snissni?), 10d7 . sisni, Ml. 78a1 , 92c2 .
sinni, 63c15 , 138c11a . (is) nini , Wb. 33a7 , Ml. 43d5 (níni). is
ninni , 93d3 , 133d3 . Mid.Ir. sinne, sinn (sind).
(a) used as subj. with 3 s. cop. followed by a rel. clause (if
the subj. of both clauses is the same, the vb. of the latter is
75also 3 s.):
as mmé m'oínur aridrochell (gl. ego et non alius), Sg. 202a7 .
is mé as apstal geinte, Wb. 5b17 . amal bid me féin no theised,
32a17 . ni mé as beo (= non ego), 19a18 . is mé dochóid darsin
smacht, SR 1529. is mé ro bæglaiged, SC 44. is messe ro
80phroidech doib, Wb. 10c20 . is mese nad frithchomart nech
(gl. qui laeserim neminem), Ml. 47a2 . is mése . . . coiblethar
céim, FB 23. is messi ém dorat, etc., IT i 127.31 (LU) = is
misiu, Eg. messe ragas for astur, SC 44. ní me no ragad i
n-agid Conculaind, TBC 1580. pl. snisni ata sonortu (gl. nos
85firmiores), Wb. 6c22 . is snisni (gl. nos . . . qui), Ml. 93c11 ; (gl.
nos . . . quos) 32a20 , cf. 102b15 , 127c2 . is níni foralaig, gl. nos
quos [straverat], 43d5 . is sinn ro sáraig in flaith it is we who
, SR 1521. ni sinn ro gab do maithius, 1729 . sinde ro
marb hé it was we who slew him, Fél. 44.5 . Exceptionally with
3 pl. cop.: batar sinde rāadatar a fochlai, Corm. Y 698 ( Anecd.
5 iv 59.23 ).
(b) in Mid.Ir. also as subj. (virtual or grammatical) of 3 s.
cop. when the pred. is a subst. or adj. (replacing the O.Ir.
personal forms of the cop.); is x mé = O.Ir. am x. The follg.
exx. from Glosses anticipate this construction: mé féin són
10 that is (means) myself, Ml. 109d3 (gl. sancta mea, expld. as
standing for the speaker himself); maic ni dosom we are sons
of His
, Wb. 19d8 . is mé a cnú chridi I am their hearts' core,
FB 24. dāig is mi . . . ársid imdegla Ulad, TBC 1667 (= osamé,
H. 2.17). inbaid bhad chrechtach . . . mhe when I was wounded,
15 6061 . is oilithri cid olc me though bad I am a pilgrim, Arch. iii
243 § 31. is mesi Ísu, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus I am M.,
612 . Cristaige misse I am a Christian, 633 . tussu Dia, meise
duine, 5248 . pl. bid calma . . . sinni , TBC 3279 (= sinne,
TBC² 2469 ). in tráth ata scítha iat, cid dúnni na bad scítha
20sind? why should we not be weary? 3623 . sinde Petar ┐ Pol,
PH 414. bid subach sind, Arch. iii 234 § 8.
(c) in absol. construction standing outside a sent. to empha-
size a verb of first pers. contained in it, often preceded by os
(later is, ocus, see Thurneysen, ZCP 16.275 ) or cid; or in an
25ellipt. sent. in connexion with an adv., etc., esp. in contrast
to a pron. of second or third pers. or a subst. (in these cases
the emphatic form is usual):
for mu mud céin am messe I am at my own work, Thes. ii
294.4 ( SP ii 8 ). sinde imorro, ni berum breith fortsu, PH 607.
30 os me chene am faelid I too am joyous, Thes. ii 293.25 ( SP ii 6 ).
os me (gl. ipse), Wb. 11a14 ; Ml. 21a1 . is me crechtach I being
, TBC 2380. ro boi sochaide fom mámus ┐ me oc
fognam, PH 1140. dobertis cech n-olc . . . form os mese oc
taircitul cech maith doibsom, Ml. 54c30 . osní credentes in
35Christo (gl. ipsi), Wb. 19a15 . Sg. 26b1 . cid snissni nín-moídem
even we boast not, Wb. 23d23 . cretmit-ne cid sind, PH 1232.
ni fil nech and . . . acht meisse m'oínur, Wb. 5a25 . do inis
Maddoc dún .i. meisse ┐ Coirbbre, Sg. 194a ( Thes. ii p. xxi ).
messe ┐ Pangur Bán, SP ii 1 ( Thes. ii 293 ). tri la . . . do bith
40duit-siu i sruth Tigir, mésse i nIordanén secht la, SR 1591. is
trúag aní . . . 'n-ar ṅdaltanaib Scathche, missi crechtach . . .
tussu gan charptiu, TBC 4147. acso me here I am! PH 638.
messi d'a rád riu ! that I should say so to them! CRR 14.
(d) in Mid. and later Ir. used as subj. with passive vb.,
45replacing the earlier infixed pron.
2 gen. s. muí (later sometimes maoi); (emph.) muí-s(s)e. pl.
(du.) nathar, nár (by Pedersen, Verg. Gram. ii §§ 407 , 480 ,
482 , analysed as n-athar, n-ár). For atonic forms used as poss.
adj., see mo and ar.
50 mui (gl. mei), Sg. 209a7 . 200b10 . muisse (gl. meam), Wb.
1b3 . marb cechtar nathar dialailiu each of us twain is dead
to the other
, 20c26 . cechtar nathar fria saindán, Thes. ii 293.
14 ( SP ii 1 ). maith la cechtar nár a dán, 294.2 . cechtar
náthar LU 5229 ( TBC² 752 ), cf. Fianaig. 12 § 22. nechtar
55nátharni, LU 1433 ( MU 46.9 ).
Used as indecl. subst.: is and nad bí muí na taí there is neither
`mine' nor `thine'
, LU 10848 ( IT i 132 ). inna mmui-sea (gl.
mea taken as neut. pl.), Wb. 18d13 . Cf. muin mai .i. os leam
mo shealbh, O'Cl.
60In oldest lit. (poetry and rhetorical prose) muí is used to
strengthen the atonic possessive, standing before it or after
the follg. subst. (see ZCP xii 439 ): tacud iar mār muī mo
chelmuine (.i. iar mórthacad regat, is í mo chélmaine dam),
L.Hy. i 184 = iar mar moi (.i. mei), Rawl. 106b22 . rect moi
65mo Christ, ib. (= moe, Rawl.). moai [leg. maoi?] mo rosc (.i.
rop limm mo radarc), ZCP iii 224 § 10 (Amra Senáin). moe mó
dia, LU 3081 = SG 236. saeru mo gene maoi, O'Dav. 1034.
tí mo macain mui `the cloak of a child of mine', 1555 . muí mo
chain cetmuinter, Anecd. iii 28.8 (moi v.l.). mui mo macc
70mui mo ingen, ib. 18 .
3 acc. (obj. of vb.): in O.Ir. and early Mid.Ir. the infixed
pron. is used to express the obj.; the use of the independent
forms (perhaps confined at first to the emphatic forms) be-
comes common later, esp. with imperative, and in course of
75time displaces the infixed pron., see Strachan, Ériu i 176 f .
(a) ni aichne nech acht missi fodessin he recognizes no one
but me
, TBC 1005. atat tri coecait . . . acum . . . noco treicfitis
messe, SC 44. dochluinet mé, PH 2714. creid mé ┐ dam ┐
indam! 7311 . dorónsabar bar triur mesi cúnntabartach the
80three of you have made me doubtful
, 1805 . freagair ar grad
Muire me! Arch. iii 241 § 3. na ro dilsigea sinn do Lucifer,
LB 112a30 ( MacCarthy 62.19 ) = nachar-ṅdilsi Dia, SR 1551.
co ra-shaera sind, PH 764. gab chucat sind! 184 . saer sinne!
2884 . (reflex.) dobermais sínn fein i ndilsi, 7233 .
85Supplementing infixed pron.: is e rom-cuir cum comruic
me, ZCP vi 101.25 . co ron-timorcmis sind fodein, PH 4938.
(b) in late Mid.Ir. the form ind comes into use as acc. pl.
and continues in Mod.Ir. till recent times: ni ro lecea índ i
ndérchoined, PH 7961 (only instance). beandaig ind! Arch.
iii 241 § 1. nach sluic in lar uili ind, 242 § 9. ná fuirigh inn in
5ngioll grása, Dán Dé xii 10. na léig inn a ccathughadh achd
saor inn o olc, Matth. vi 13. Rarely used as nom., with cop.:
mec oenathar ┐ oenmathar ind , LB 113b62 . ma dubach ind
o'n aithrigi, Arch. iii 234 § 8. da mbeith decelt tarainne | is
ind ar cæ do teghluigh, ZCP ix 167.3 ( = os sinn).
10 II Infixed forms: in O.Ir. and earlier Mid.Ir. used with vb.
to express the acc. (occas. also dat., also reflex. and reciprocal
relations), see Thurn. Hdb. 244. In later Mid.Ir. the infixed
form gradually falls into disuse, giving way to the indepen-
dent, see Ó Catháin, ZCP xix 1.
15(a) O.Ir. forms: (a) after the prefixes no-, ro-, do-, di-, fo-,
ar-, imm-, and the negations ní, nách-: s. -m(m)-, leniting
follg. consonant. pl. -n(n)-; occas. with vowel inserted between
prefix and pron. (esp. after nách).
(b) in rel. constr. and after prefixes ad-, aith-, con-, ess-,
20 etar-, for-, frith-, in-: s. -dom(m)-, -dam(m)-. pl. -don(n-),
-dan(n)-. The prefixes ad- (aith-, ess-, in-), con-, frith-, com-
bined with the pron. give the forms atom- (-am-), cotam-,
fritom-, pl. atan(n)-, coton-.
For full treatment of inf. pron. in Glosses see Sommer,
25 ZCP i 181 - 7 .
(b) in O.Ir. the inf. pron. is sometimes used idiomatically
as dat. with 3 s. subst. vb., apparently unstressed, in impers.
constr. folld. by adj. or subst., as equivalent for a copula-
clause: nim-tha laám I am not a hand, Wb. 12a21 . nímptha
30fírion I am not righteous, 8d24 . nimtha maith do chath I am
no good for fighting
, SC 13. Also with follg. noun subject ním-
thá I have not (non est mihi): nimthá-sa cumac dóib I am not
able for them
, LU 1515 ( MU 52.10 ). Cf. SR 3761 quoted under
(c). But ním fil I am not: ci nín fil lib although we are not with
, Wb. 16b9 , where the pronoun is accusative.
See atá and is.
(c) in Mid.Ir. the poss. ar is often used instead of -n- in pl.:
at-ar-fail cen duine trén we are without a strong man, SR 3761.
ních-ar-fail tlacht no dagbíad we have neither raiment nor food,
40 1560 (for -ch cf. 2088 ). cid nach-ar-cobrai? why dost thou
not help us?
3759 . is trúag aní narta [ = no-ar-ta] de what
comes to us therefrom
(i.e. our consequent plight), TBC 4150.
in dóig in-ar-tísed Conchobar? is it likely that C. would have
come to us?
815 , cf. 834 . rar-cluin he has heard us, 3342 .
45 rar-marnestar, 3688 . issed rar-metair-ne, CRR 5. co n-or-
mbaiter so that we are drowned, RC ix 461. ailim trocaire ṅDe
co n-or-bera uili . . . isin flaith, YBL 166b34 . nach-ar-leic i
n-amus! PH 7961. aprisci in adbhuir dian-ar-forcoimnacair
whereof we have been created, Ériu ii 122 § 62. fa breith an
50Coimghe ror-cum, Rel. Celt. ii 280.16 . For: ar = 1 pl. pres.
cop., see is.
III Suffixed forms with vb.: s. -m(m), -um(m), -am(m); pl.
(a) with 3 s. cop. in dat. relation: issum ecen precept it is
55necessary for me to teach
, Wb. 10d24 . isim écen-sa techt, LU
4694 ( TBC 221 ). ním dil (.i. ni hinmain lem), Hy. ii 44. ni
fuigeba-su curaid . . . bádam [ = bad-am] fiu-sa thou wilt not
find a champion who would be worth me
, SC 42. In Mid.Ir. the
suffix comes to be regarded as a personal inflection of the
60cop., hence the forms isam, bam, badam; see is.
(b) with 3 s. of subst. vb. in dat. and of other vbs. in acc.
relation, in pres. ind. and pret. and pres. subj.: tathum dual
do bruc I have cause for grief, LL 147a23 = Proc. R.I.A. iii
548 § 20. tathum ó Día praind, Anecd. i 64.6 . tathum .i. ata
65agam, O'Dav. 1603. sastum ( = sásaid-um), Ériu ii 63 § 1.
ainsium Crist may Christ protect me, Hy. vi 14. ní rubí-m-sea
do gæ has not wounded me, SC 41. táthunn ní as nessa, Fél.
Prol. 217. taithiunn . . . ni fristarddam ar n-áthius we have
something to which to apply our acuteness
, Thes. ii 293.19 ( SP
70 ii 3 ). ainsiund .i. ro ainge sind may he protect us, 352.33 ( Hy.
vi 14 Comm. ).
Used in prayer-formulas, often with a spurious s-subj. with
force of optative: moightiumh [ = mogaid- or mogad-um?]
. . . slánuightium, ZCP vi 258.10 . snaidhsium saorsam
75carsam, ib. 3 . snaidhsim Dia, x 347.4 . molsum gach maith
. . . biadsum . . . griansum grian . . . saorsum gach dūn . . .
mārsim Dia . . . caomsum Coimdi, ib. 5 - 7 .
IV Suffixed form with prep., s. -m(m), pl. -n(n); see under
the several prepositions.
80 V Emphasizing particle, s. -sa, -so, later occas. -su; (after
palatal cons. or vowels e, i) -se, later also -sea. pl. -ni, later
-ne; laimir-sni (gl. audemus), Wb. 15c20 (a prima manu), is an
archaic form.
Added to (a) independent form of pron., mes(s)e, snisni, etc.,
85see I above.
(b) subst. preceded by poss. adj.: im labrad-sa, Wb. 14c23 .
mo fochidi-se, 25a10 . dum popul-sa, Ml. 77a13 . mo popuil-se,
ib. 12 . mo dam-sa, CRR 4. mo throit-se, 5 . form dreich-sea,
SC 40. mo chomarli-sea, FB 8. dom'ic-sa, IT i 125.28 (LU).
imm dáil-si, 126.2 . ar n-inmedónach-ni, Ml. 67d14 . ar
5mbreth-ni, FB 62. ar cuit-ni, CRR 17. fo daig ar n-ícca-ne,
PH 176.
(c) pred. of cop. in first pers. (O. and early Mid.Ir.): am
cimbid-se, Wb. 27c22 . nita-chumme-se, 20c25 . ni ba dimic-
the-se, 21d3 . am trú-sa, SC 7. isam ben-sa, FB 30. bíam
10[ = bam] cú-sa, LU 5027 ( TBC² 538 ). robummar bibdid-ni
dait-siu, Ml. 62d5 . air [im]mi ardu-ni de we are the higher,
23d23 .
(d) vb. used in first pers. to emphasize the subj.: attóo-sa,
Wb. 12a21 . biuu-sa, 16d8 . tíagu-ssa, 17b18 . co ní ārim-se,
15 14d17 . biat-sa, PH 1244. biat-su fēn, 6756 . da mbeind-se,
CRR 8. ó gabus-sa, SC 17. After 1 s. s-pret. one s is com-
monly omitted in Mid.Ir. texts: robádusa ( = bádus-sa),
Acall. 5019. tucusa, PH 3826. rochésasa, 3268 . marbsa ( =
marbus-sa), IT i 158.10 ( LL 154b6 ). pl. tiagme-ni , Wb. 15b28 .
20 léicfimmi-ni, Ml. 14d10 . dodeochammár-ni, SC 13. dogenam-
ne, FB 16. forodam-ne, PH 6603. dúnmait-ne, 6868 .
(e) trans. vb. with inf. pron. obj. of first pers. to emphasize
the obj.: rom-thoicther-sa, Thes. ii 293.6 ( SP I ). nacham-
indarbanar-sa, Ml. 56a22 . du-m-em-se protect me, 72d11 .
25 cotom-gaba-sa . . . conom-thic-se, FB 24. is e rom-forcan-sa,
PH 1798. ro-n-mess-ni (gl. aestimati sumus), Wb. 4b22 . issed
rar-metair-ne, CRR 5. ni rubím-sea, SC 41 (pron. suff.).
(f) prep. with suff. pron. of first pers., dam-sa, dún-ni, etc.,
see the several preps.