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1 is v copula(see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses
( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in
Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ;
Thurn. Gramm. § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).
55USAGE.
The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The
normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj.,e.g. is cele dae
in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 .is bésad inna flatho doemetdofich
(i.e.to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb.
60 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.:fáilte cáich bad fáilte
dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 .mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis
achtáil`if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical
folk
,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse:Illand mac Scanlain is marb,
Anecd. i 12.24 .andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera
65is reid, 15.1 .a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An
inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille,op. cit.p. 74)
occurs in:nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l.sanctbrigit
suanach)`Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see Thurn.
Gramm. p. 476 and n. 168 ).is tria chin mban | bit
70fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in
rel. sentences in Fél.:mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon
dubach`from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 .súi
diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach
`whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but:S. | ata soilsi
75slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ).
Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is
introduced into the middle of it (Strachan,op. cit.p. 49.30),
e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 .nirbu samlaid
són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 .nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .
80In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal
pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal
form:am irlam, Wb. 13c8 .at fechem dom, 32a21 .combed
adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 .nirbu choimdiu
`he had not been a lord,' 33a5 .bad carthi`let him be loved,'
85 Sg. 148a2 .nítat ainmnidi`they are not nominatives,' 189a10 .
amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently
strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the
pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish
between persons:niba dimicthe-se libsi`I should not be
despised by you
,' Wb. 21d3 (but:nida apstal apstil`I am
5not an apostle's apostle
,' 18c1 ).massu rath-som, 5a30 .
ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 .it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .
ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 .ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12
(cf. Thurn. Gramm. § 811 ).nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach,
ZCP xiii 373.11 .
10The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ;
(b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ;
(e) the substantival demonstrativeí; (f) the subject of a
relative verb; (g) a clause introduced byas n-`that it is' ;
(h) a substantive.
15At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b),
(c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.
(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative
adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and
number (see Dillon,op. cit., for development from O.Ir.,
20of which he cites as type:it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 ,
to Mod. Ir.:is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund.
§ 138 , §227 ).
(b)amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 .ciaba beo bid do precept
anme Crist, 23b29 .is occ maid atáa, 6a18 .condib tria
25n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge,
Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.).is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 .
cid tre étged rop othar, Críth Gabl. 61. nochon ara omun
cena, TBC² 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I. ¤ ..., TSh. 4816.
(c)níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 .hóre is amne atáa,
30 12d7 .is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).
(d)mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 .bad hé for n-ere`let
Him be your burden
,' 9d12 .rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 .is tú
is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud
ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.
35When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e)
the substantival demonstrativeíor (f) the antecedent of
a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced byas n-`that it
is
' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula
to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate
40stood in apposition to this pronoun.
(e)matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht,
Wb. 2c14 .bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a
tola féisne dóib, 30d8 .it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí
adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .
45(f)is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia
thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory,
Wb. 8d20 .it héinimicilessomqui fraudant et qui iniuriam
faciunt , 9c25 .it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works
of a bishop are the things he mentions below
, 28b20 .is he in
50firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huilebeatusa the
truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings
, Hib. Min.
429.
(g)is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas
deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 .ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun
55`not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 .is ed asberat as
ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 .is ed adfet a
legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius
saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .
(h) With indef. noun as pred.:condib dídnad domsa
60foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 .combad notire rod-
scribad cosse, 27d16 .mástat carait ... mastat námait,
LU 9090 - 1 .níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.
With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a
definite substantive can immediately follow the copula.
65Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced
immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate,
the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf.(e), (f) and
(g) above). This is the normal construction in the later
language:ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan`not his
70own Manhood has dignified Him
,' Wb. 33c5 .ni in cholinn
donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 .is athir-som innaní
techte foirbthetith`he is the father of them that possess
perfection
,' 2c11 .mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, Sc.MMD
§ 16.8 .is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min.
75 134.
With pronoun:bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob
doib, Wb. 17b20 .is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 .is hé
in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .
After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order
80of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate
follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be
fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for
emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence,e.g.a
predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is
85most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and sub-
ject can only be distinguished by means of the context and
the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut
in Irish as in other languages.
Predicate immediately following pronoun:ní ceilsom
tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 .issí ind ainim as airlam do
5chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 .measaim gurab é
an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.
Subject following pronoun:mate nama anfolaid in cele
falla frithgnama`if neglect of service was the only disqualifi-
cation of the tenant
,' Laws ii 324.6 .ar is he besad felsub
10etarcert di dúlibetsaigid forruetnebchretem a n-adiadar di
crist, Wb. 27a10 .it hecaelila suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml.
42b7 .is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim
... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.
In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun
15of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression
with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd
person of the copula:at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena
ríg talman, 1138 .am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .
Cf.Mid. Ir.:is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog
20De thú, 510 .is gadaige thu, 7781 .is clann én athar ┐
én máthar sind, 7501 .
With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (?at
lūam in gaiscid grind(but:v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind),
Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal ex-
25pression is:Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí
Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.
Cf.Mid. Ir.:is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu
Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 .
is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba
30Petair, 612 (butcf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).
At all periods of the language the expression of the
copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of
a principal sentence:alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech
immurgu a inne Wb. 7c1 .faelid-sem ... | os me chene
35am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ).cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē,
Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill,
9 § 12 .Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, Arch. iii 304 § 1. Andreas
ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed
luid C. remiseom, TBC² 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March
405. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, Sc.MMD § 20.12 .gnáth trom-
thóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann
sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.
SPECIAL USES.
In periphrasis (see Strachan,op. cit.p. 49):nitat huili
45robtar uilccfilii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb.
11a23 .is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .
Elliptical:demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais
there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain
tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 .nī ba
50comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, Aisl. MC 19.4 .
Manibad were it not for ,etc.with follg. accus.:mainbad
éicin, Wb. 4a20 .manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml.
136c2 .manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 .manipad do chrúass,
Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC 1855. Later re-
55placed by subst. vb.:meni beth in clessín ingantach,
2063 .ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .
To express an obligation:praind do tomailt la marb
hi tig ... is a hurcul`to eat a meal with a dead man in the
house is forbidden
,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 .ma dorat(d)a forcraid
60ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth Gabl. 288. ma ro-
achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa
comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air`soll es ihm
werden ... soll er es bekommen
,' Cóic Con. Fug.RE§ 13.106 .
On sentences of the typeceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung,
65see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .
Confusion between copula and subst. vb.:gérbho soi-
cenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain,
RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or readro ba).dogniind ... airchisecht
dib, mar no-béind athair doib`as though I had been their
70father
,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC:boe (bui, bái, boi,v.ll.)
sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech
ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec
nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc
libur leigdocht, § 27.
75FORMS (a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for
further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan,loc. cit.).
(b) from other texts.
In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg.
and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse,
80their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required
with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed
pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be
expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate.
Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than
85 sg. 3,e.g. nídamfornída(s. 1),atar,atin(pl. 3+ inf. pron.
pl. 1) forammi,bemforbe(fut. s. 1). These forms while
at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir.,
e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 ,isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 ,
diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from
Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is
5shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj.,e.g. nibar
troig, SR 3641 ,gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 ,acht co
mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC 35 ; and by such instances
as:gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 .ropdhar fir chomdeirgide,
ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether
10a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf.
pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have
been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms
under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily
as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form
15but rather as being his way of expressing what would in
O. Ir. be expressed bycombin,etc.
The only forms surviving in Mod. Ir. are those of the
3rdsg., number and person being expressed by independent
pronouns: isort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is
20fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... |
re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing
... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach
cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 .is beannuighthe
sibhse, 5669 .do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán
25mé, 9638 .
Indic. pres.
A. Absolute s. 1 (a)am:am tualang dano a hétarcerta,
Wb. 12d22 .is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 . (b)am,im,isam,
isim,sam:am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa
30... am maccam, TBC² 583 - 4 .amm eolach, TBC 1750.
uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ).im
fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 .as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh,
BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form
isam(<is s. 3+ inf. pron.s. 1) occurs, side by side witham.
35In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as
s. 1:uairisambensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB).issam
ingen ríg, TBFr. 163. asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim
meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR
1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .
40 s. 2 (a)at,it:at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 .air it firian-su,
Ml. 55d11 . (b)at,it,ot,isat,asat:at meirb, Fél. July 19 .
at ferr do lāech indó-sa, Sc.MMD § 16.8 .fobīth ad ōegi,
TBC² 507 (YBL) =dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil,
TBC² 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67.
45 isatt áil-siu dam-sa, Serglige 739 .isit aneōlach, Aisl. MC
122.9 .isat duni dána, TBC 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC²
3632. s. 3 (a)is,rel. as`:is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes.
ii 246.3 (Camb.).is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 .
is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 .is cele dae in fer hisin,
50 Ml. 30c3 . Freq. writtenissbefore vowels:iss uisse, Wb.
22c21 .iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 .iss ed inso
nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with
a follg. initial s, one s falling out:isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 .
isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.).rel. brothchán as chóir duib,
55 Wb. 33c15 .as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 . (b)is(s),as,us,es,rel.
as`,is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after
the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not
in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ):is túath oirdnither ríi[g],
Críth Gabl. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha
60na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson
┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine,
BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān
in fear, Laws iii 156.5 .isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307.
as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. Fug.H§ 59.
65 in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 .as do hIddom-
daib do, PH 6946. In TSh.`both abs. and rel. are written
as in MSS.
,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 .es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 .
es coitcend, ib. 2 .essed dobeir ..., 26.24 (all exx. from
Cáin Domnaig).ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 .ar us
70merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of
ISis dropped:┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis TC 1341.
rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 .as chórus, Críth Gabl. 223.
a n-us tol lat-su, Aisl. MC 33.9 . After constructions which
take rel.n-the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where
75the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies):
do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 .as ndia sidegl.
doceo, 13a18 .as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 .as ndirruidigthe a
n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 .as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in
salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 .asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29
80(butcf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes.
ii 246.25 (Camb.)).amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y
606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel.n-dropped out:uair ... as inann
nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in
Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con.
85Fug.H§ 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, Buile Ṡ.
54.15 . Very early thenon-rel.formISis used for rel. and
vice versa, see above:cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.²
1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill
ann ..., Cóic Con. Fug.RE§ 24. intí is cosmail do Dia,
PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.
5 pl. 1 (a)ammi,ammin,immi:ammi techtiri árt-phersine,
Wb. 24d9 .ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 .amminn
imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 .airmi(leg.
airimmi, Ed.)ardu-ni, 23d23 . (b)ammin,ar,dar,atar,
isar,atin:is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC² 1614. amin
10mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we
are wretched
, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé,
3583 .fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 .
cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min.
p. 82.x .isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de'
15ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).
pl. 2 (a)adib,idib,adi:adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 .
adib oís muntire, 21c4 .adi mmaicc, 9a13 .hóre adi ellachti,
21c17 .ar idib maithi, 16b9 . (b)itib,at(a)bar,atfor:ár
itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (=dáig
20abtar (leg.atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ).┐ itib degdoene,
LL 281b28 .atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB).is dásacht a
ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 .atabar
glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 .apraid fris at for n-aithrig do
debaid fris, Y Cymmrodor xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).
25 pl. 3 (a)it,at(once only in non-rel. sense),rel. ata`,at,et:
it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 .it dássactig, 12d36 .it coitchena,
Sg. 10a1 .air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 .rel. in mairb
ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 .it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 .do
retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 .it hesidi at inbésa,
30 45d1 .it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetarsón ata ndoini,
91c18 . (b)it,at,isat,isid,rel. ata`,at:at remra na loeg ┐
it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma
bóairech, Críth Gabl. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat
úathe dó ilib, 3096 .it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9.
35 at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin,
SR 194. at mora, 3625 .id mesa indád demno, Anecd.
iii 27.4 .at aena`these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y .at
móra glonna Medbi, TBC² 1668. it cāema, 583 .cf. is
mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 .i n-ifern isid bron-
40aigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) =at brónaig, LU
9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 .rel. it é ata
érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth Gabl. 578.
dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v
102.6 .laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 .seoit
45... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 .áos ata etromae cinaith
`whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 .dāine ata maige
imarīadam`on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia
i 122 § 4.
B. Conjunct.
50 INeg. s. 1 (a)níta`,nída`:nita chumme-se friu-som,
Wb. 20c25 .nida apstal apstil, 18c1 .sech níta aidlicen,
Ml. 70b7 . (b)nída`,nídam,nídom,nímda,ním,níam,níom,
níum:nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu,
v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht.
55 i 16 § 1. nidhabheo-sa, TBC 6080 (fut.sense).nīdam macc,
TBC² 645 (=nimda, LU 5129 ).nīdom sāitheach, TBC² 507
(=nimda, LU 4996 ).nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC² 2260.
nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382.
nim dana, 2069 .nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP
60 xiii 373.11 .nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 .ni dam
ben-sa fós do, Caithr.CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2
§ 4 .nidom chuchtach, Buile Ṡ. 30.1 .níom tualaing suan,
TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl.,
v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 . s. 2 (a) No occurrence. (b)nída,
65 nídad,nídat,nít:nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6.
nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 .nít marbdae for tercphit,
Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33.
nít firlaech-su, TBC 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 .nidat
mac-sa, FDG 718. s. 3 (a)ní(geminates the follg. con-
70sonant,e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud`(it is) not my merit,'
Wb. 21c20 ):ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 .ní cuit broto acht
is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 . (b)ní(a formnísoccurs once in ACC
and may possibly be archaic:hua Airt nís Neill co nert
`not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ):ní rí Caisil
75co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol.
259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 .ní
segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuig-
eann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith
..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition
80afterníbut they may be scribal errors:ní ḟlaith Ulad
nod chosna, 2788 .ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir.níprefixes
h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic:ní ag
cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see
note). With inf. pron.:nímdil cid dīthrub Temair
85(glossed:ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-
nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but..., LL 133b8 .
nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain`not to us is the Knower
who used to avert fears from us
,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC).
nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18. pl. 1 (a)nítam`,nítan`,nídan`:
nitam toirsich(sic leg., Ed.) gl.non angustiamur, Wb.
5 15b21 (a prima manu).nidan chumachtig for n-irisse,
14c41 .nidan chosmili, 14d37 .ar nitanreprobi-ni, 18b9 .
(b)nidar:nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .
pl. 2 (a)nítad,nídad(see Paradigms p. 66 n. ):nitad lib
fésin`ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 .nidad óegid, 21b14 .
10 14a8 .ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 . (b)nibar,nifor:nibar troig,
SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 .
is tróg niforn-intliuchtach(?leg. -aig), 1238 . pl. 3 (a)
nítat,nítaat,nídat,nít,nis:nitat cosnama domundi,
Wb. 7d12 .ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 .nídat chummai, Ml.
15 115b3 .nit derachti, 128d1 . (b)nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17.
nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC²
2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996.
nidad tlaithi, 1571 .nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os
ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 .nīdat cuibde, Aisl. MC 7.16 .nīt
20mór, 41.18 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg.
exx. of a3 pl.form,nis, occurring in Law texts:acht nis
cosmailsi comarba[i]`aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,'
Laws iii 42.25 .atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a
cuir, 46.18 .nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 .nis cuir
25bel dilsi, xii 365.1 .nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire,
log fognama, ib. 8 .
IIWith dependent negatives: (a)nád who(orwhich)
is not,that(it)is not (sees.v. 1 nád,2 nád,3 nádand Strachan,
loc. cit.l. 1007 ff.). (b)nant,nan that(it)is not (sees.v. nan
30and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .). (c)nách that(it)is not (see
s.v. 3 nach,4 nachand Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). Fornícon,
noco,nochon,etc., sees.v. nícon.
IIIWith interrog. particlein-: s. 1 (a)inda:inda
apstal`am I an apostle?,' Wb. 10c20 . (b) ?anom (=indom)
35adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC 1186 ). s. 2 (a)
No instances. (b)indat:indat creitmech, Trip.² 917.
indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 .indot eolac[h], CCath.
2883. indat sochenel, PH 695. s. 3For both (a) and (b)
the interrog. particle alone is used,i.e. in(lateran) : (a)in
40cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 .in ed fodera báas domsa,
3c33 . (b)inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co
fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do
thigerna ?, BDD² 1519. pl. 3 (a)indat:indat mbriathra ?
`is it the words?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é(sic MS.),V
45below). (b)indat:nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither
in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 .indat
facsi don purt are they near...?, LU 1873 (ICM).indat
pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC 1328. Later the
interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also forpl.:co
50findara inn-iattanic, PH 440.
IVWith neg. interrog. s. 2(a)cenita:cenita chum-
gabtha-siu`art Thou not exalted?' Ml. 84c3 . s. 3 (a)cani,
cini:cani doich, Wb. 5b35 .cani messe immoforling cretim
dúibsi, 10c18 .cani mebuir lib, 20a5 .cini glé lib..., 12d4 .
55 cini inonn, 18a16 .caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 . (b)cani:
Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē?, Bruchst. 50 §
110 . These forms were early replaced bynách q.v. s.v.
5 nach(nách). Interrogative sentences containingcía,
cid who,what(is).etc. (i) The copula is not expressed
60aftercíabut that it is implied is clear from the follg.rel.:
cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 .
cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc(qui vivit ┐ non videbit
mortem), LL 281a32 .cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt
dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 .gá cara don uile as fhearr, A.
65Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 .cía can
duib ?, Trip.² 1113. Ingen.: coichúainn hí ? to which
of us will it belong
?, 811 .íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU
1838. With verbal ending added:cóichet na heich se ?,
8522 (FB). (ii)cid(see Thurneysen, Gramm. § 466 ):cid
70as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 .cid as maith, 12d12 .ní
tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 .cid is conair ... is sed
is conair ..., Cóic Con. Fug.H§ 138. cid ara n- why? :
cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 .cid ara cuinchi-
siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ).cid ara n-eipenar ?,
75 Laws ii 194.2 .cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9
.cid how? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see,
Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC²
2224. pl. 3 citné(`gekürzt ausci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx
372 ):assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in
80fognam`what are the powers unto which the service is proper,'
Wb. 6a9 .citné briathra robatar`what were the words?,'
Ml. 61b7 .citné robatar`what were they,' ib. 8 .citne a
nanmand na soerbard (caidet,v.l.), IT iii 5.8 .ceitni
trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind
85amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws
iscisné:cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise`what cases
of these extend to three days
?,' Laws i 230.21 .cisne tri
biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 .cisne trí
ana soitcedach`what are the three wealths...,' Triads 239.
Sometimescisimmediately precedes the noun :cis form-
5menn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 .cis ndíthle
do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 .cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?,
BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi,
Laws i 230.3 .cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 .
cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 .cis lir fodlai filet forsin
10mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 .cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .
VWith various conjunctions. (i)cía,cé,ci although,
that. s. 1 (a) No instance. (b)ciam,cidam:ciam toeb-
nocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC 1677. misi gedam
foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa,
15 Buile Ṡ. 138.y .giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma
333.18 . s. 2 (a) No instance. (b)cíasa,cidat:cíasa lobur,
no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind
ndoenda, PH 163. s. 3 (a)césu,céso,cíasu,cíaso,cíasa:
cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 .ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes,
20 Sg. 211b7 . (b)césu,céso,cíasa,cid,gid:césu réid ar
lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso,v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh
[m]bung(see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 .ciasa díthrub,
Met. Dinds. iv 42.2 .ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987.
gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 . pl. 1 (a) No instance. (b)cíammin,
25 gidar:cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC 3680
pl. 2 (a)cenuded',cenotad' :cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi)
`although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.).cenotad
maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 .cenutad suíre, 4a10 . pl. 3 (a)cetu',
ceto' :cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 .ceto écintecha, 203b10 .
30(b)ciato',cetu',ciat,cidat:ciato chomṡruithi, Críth Gabl.
493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad
dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit,v.l.) ili fuile,
Corm. Y 975.39 .srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR
4071. cidat mora, 446 .cidad mōra, TBC² 2235. ceat olca,
35 ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63. cía+ neg.s. 3 (a)cinid,
cenid:cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 .cinith mút,
Sg. 5b4 .cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 . (b)cenid,cini:cenid mé in
murgelt, LU 3022 (H).cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii
375.10 . (ii)má(ma)s. 2 (a) No instance. (b)masat(masae,
40 v.l.) :masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig
449 .masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae,v.l.)
geilt, Buile Ṡ. 100.13 . s. 3 (a)masu',maso',masa' (see
Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) :masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 .
masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 . (b)masu',masa',mas' :
45sees.v. 3 má(ma). Add :masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483.
mása thol, 584 .a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC 3659.
massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm.
mas é Dubthach, TBC 2780. masad (massa,v.l.) ḟír,
Mór M. 266.15 .mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is
50críoch, 1366 . pl. 3 (a)matu:matu hé ata horpamin,
Wb. 2c14 . (b)masat,mástat:masat elti, MU² 399.
mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB). ma+ neg.
s. 3 (a)manid:manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .
(b)manid,minad,minid,munid,minap,munab:manid
55caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB).minad hé, BDD² 1287.
minid hé, 917 .mani daig, 593 .munab follus, TSh. 5164.
Sees.v. 3 má(ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form
béso,bésuis used as asubjunctive(for its origin see Thurn.,
KZ xlviii 60.f .) :bésu dagduine cini estar túari`he may be
60a good man
,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 .massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi,
19b11 . (iii)co n- so that. s. 1 (a)conda:is rad dée immum-
forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 .conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .
(b)conda,conam,conadam,conidam:domāncatar-sa
uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam
65torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam
trén, LU 10285. 10304 .conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach
am inmain frisnach āen, Aisl. MC 95.4 . s. 2 (a) No instances.
(b)condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795. s. 3 (a)condid,
conid:condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 .tremiberar
70... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 .condid di thetacht in
spírto ...profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.).conid e epscop
insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.).conid femen, Sg. 123b2 .
condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 .connid ed, 91a19 . (b)condid,
conid,conad,cunad,etc.:condid ann, AU i 434.22(A.D.
75916). Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall.
153.12 .conid edh, AU i 538.6(A.D. 1015).conid soillsi,
Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 .conad
dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 .
Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir,
80 554 .condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 .conodh i, Ériu iii
141.206 .conud e, RC vi 184.19 .gonid lór, Arch. iii 306
§ 1 .gonadh aire sin ..., O'Hussey T.C. 51.1. TSh. 1824.
5960 .conidwas replaced bygurab(gur),guraoriginally
a subjunctive form :innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv
85378.17 .gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445
corab í so, 7334 .gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur
bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 .gurab é an bás, 37 .
gurab tearc, 94 .er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum,
PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 .
gur ionmholta, 132.10 .do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 .
5 Cf.also :casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .
pl. 1 (a)condan:hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi,
Wb. 2d14 .immunrordad condan maicc togunon naturae ,
20d10 . (b) No instances. pl. 3 (a)condat:condat anman
som, Sg. 188b3 .condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .
10(b)condat,condot,cundat:condat e tri decmainge in
domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 .condat cora, SR 296.
Serglige 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310.
gondat Ulaid, TBC 704. (iv) Withcen co(not found in
Glosses) : (b)s. 1 goncom (gen gob,v.l.) maith-se oc im-
15marbáig, TBC 3219. s. 3 giongo glan mo sgáth, DDána
24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6. (v) Withno:
s. 1 (a)nonda',nunda':amal nonda thorisse`as I am
trustworthy
,' Wb. 10a28 .a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml.
126d12 . s. 2 (a)nonda',nunda' :lassaní nonda brithem
20`when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 .a nnunda chocuibsid-siu,
58b6 . 38c27 . pl. 1 (a)nundem,nundan:oire nundem
membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.).á nnundan
deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 . pl. 2 (a)nondad:amal nondad maicc
cóima, Wb. 27b16 . (b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.
25(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctionssechandnoch
the absolute form is used. See undersechand1 noch.
sechi whoever,whatever probably contains cop.s. 3:sechi
é cretes`whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 .sechi hed bás són
`whatsoever death...,' 13c1 .sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml.
30 112b6 . pl. 3 sechitat hé` whoever they are ,' 49a19 .sechitat
hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat
mbriathra,IIIabove).
VIWith various prepositions in relative clauses. (i)i
n-(in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu
35 i 12 ) : s. 2 (a) No instances. (b)inda:cid at-chí dúnd,
inda fisid`since thou art...,' BDD² 545. s. 3 (a)indid,
innid:cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb.
12d18 .ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 .indid mailliu
a tuile`by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.).
40 20.41 (ib.). (b)indid,inid,inad,ina:indid Niall ... ro
malart since it is N...., AU i 438.26(A.D. 918).indid
Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortab-
airsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 .inad gilla óc ...
tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí
45Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm,
ZCP xiii 23.1 .inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75.
eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, Arch. iii 216.17 . Forms
originally perf. and subj. came to be used aspres.indic.:
sé céimeanna'narcosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní
50fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab,v.l.) éigean sinne do
shlánughadh, 2088 . neg.traigle i nach ūathad uidre,
Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.
pl. 3 (a)indat:indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche
since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 .cid ind aimser indat sláin
55ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 . (b)in am indat slána, TBC 952.
inat ṡlana, 1386 . (ii)día n-: s. 1 (a) No instances. (b)
díanda,díanam:Chríst dianda chéle`whose servant I am,'
Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12. s. 2 (a)
No instances. (b)díandat:cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC²
60 1382. s. 3 (a)díant,díandid,dían:intí diant ainm dis-
cessio, Wb. 26a5 .in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 .dian-
did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 .in son diandid tintud ..., Ml.
37a10 .dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg.
di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.). (b)
65 díand,díanid,díanad,dían,díanda,dían(d)at,dána,dán,
etc.:dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22(A.D. 839). Corm.
Y 825.2 .fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand
sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 .indī dianda
coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 .dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH
70 5180. 5494 .mí diandat (diando, MS.,dianid,v.l.) ainm
Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?,
Hib. Min. p. 50.6 .Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC² 2263.
dianaid rī, 560 .dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2.
cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 .drem
75dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . Arch. iii
237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainmtyrus , TSh.
8973. Pres. subj.andperf.forms used aspres. indic.:
darabceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725.
cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg.airchindech do nach
80diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo
chotlud, TBC 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ? TSh. 6401.
pl. 3 (a) neg. :donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg.inna hísiu,
Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23
(Tur. Cod.). (b)díanat,díandat:amail rondeiligthe
85sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Met. Dinds.
iii 312.116 .bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.
(iii)ara n-: (a)arndid:cid arndid ísliu aescequam sol ,
Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.).in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg.
200a13 . (b)ara n-:is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin'`for
which
a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26. (iv)ó n-: (a)
5 óndid,ónid:in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb.
12d23 .honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 . (b)ón,óna,
ónab:díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi
in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, Arch. iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar
dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412. (v)frissa n-: (a)frisin:
10 dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil`to which it is like,' Sg.
188a13 . (b)frisnid,ren,rena,renab,renar:inmain samail
frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC² 2875. nech risnid
[andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh,
IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled
15do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Ang. 112.8 .dream ...
réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 .
711 . pl. 3 (a) No instance. (b)frisndat:inna ferta sa
... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib,
Trip.² 3096. (vi)lasa n-: (a)lasin:intí lasin format,
20 Ml. 129b3 .lasin n-accubur, 53c16 . (b)lasnad,lenab:
intí lasnád ecul`who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 .
cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 . (vii)oca n-:
(a) No instance. (b)ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord,
RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC).co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé,
25 Hy Fiachr. 284.5 .sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh,
IGT Decl. ex. 1177 =gán, 662 . (viii)fa n-(O. Ir.imm) :
(a) No instance. (b)fán,fána:a cCionn Coradh fan léir
magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh.
1132. (ix)asa n-: (a) No instance. (b)asarb:briathra
30asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664. (x)forsa n-,fora n-:
(a) No instance. (b)forab:o sheircc in domain-sea forab
airchindech diabul, PH 7118.
Cons.Pres. s. 3 Abs. (a) No instance. (b)bid:bid coit-
chenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth Gabl. 50.
35 bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .
Conj. (a)-bi,-pi:nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 .
12c12 .air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 .níbí cian, 91d2 .
combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 .indhí lasmbi
accobur, 30c23 .imbí hinun folud whether the substance is
40the same
, Sg. 188a6 . (b)-bi,-pi:nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y
447.16 .ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 .i ngait
nádbi aí`which is not his,' Críth Gabl. 218. ben las(a)mbi
cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí
sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y .i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD²
45 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 3
(a) No instance. (b)bit:imscarad dotluigigter flaith
fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann`a separation
which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any
disqualification of the tenant
,' Laws ii 316.z .
50 Ipv. s. 2 Abs. (a)ba' :ba chuimnech dilguda duinni,
Ml. 46b29 . (b)ba,bat:ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd.
iii 13.10 =bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 .bát
umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 .bat cúimnech, PH 1208.
Conj. (a)-ba',pa' :naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 .napa
55chondarcell, 31c22 . (b)-ba,-bad,-b(a)dat,-rbat,-rab,
-rsat:nā ba lonn frim, TBC² 1210. nad bad lond-so,
TBC 1045. na badat, 1106 .nabdat dolam, SR 1253.
narbat (marab, narab,v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9.
nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.
60 s. 3 Abs. (a)bad',bed',pad' :bad chore dúib friu`have peace
towards them
,' Wb. 27d11 .bed chuimnech, 33d5 .pad
glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 . (b)bad,ba:arān Mochue ...
ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 .bad and sein not
adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá,v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 .
65 bad (bud, bidh, bu,v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261.
bad uallach, Sc.MMD § 4.11 .ba(bá, LU)maith blāth in
claideb, TBC² 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2
(Tochm. Ét.).nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal,
ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron.s. 2: badatcuman
70 remember, Rawl. 72b39 . Conj. (a)-bad' :nábad chotarsne
fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 .nabad do réir far
colno beithe, 6b4 . (b)-bad,-bud,-pa:ná bad ead do-
gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na
pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 .nā bud sgēlach,
75 ZCP vii 311 § 9. pl. 1 (a)ban',baán' :ban chossmaili
friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 .baán tairismich do
irnigdi, 5d22 . (b) No instance. pl. 2 Abs. (a)bad',bed' :
bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 .bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 .
bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 . (b)
80No instance. Conj. (a)-bad' :nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb.
12d26 . (b) ?nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .
pl. 3 Abs. (a)bat' :bat chosmuli frinni`let them be like
unto us
,' Wb. 17c5 . (b)bat,bad:bat menci do dalai,
Ériu viii 173.8 .bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.
85Conj. (a)-bat:badarmatura deibess lib nábat nacha arm
aili, Wb. 22d14 . (b) No instance.
Impf. s. 3 (a) No instance. (b)bíth:nicon ibdis bandai
cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib`who-
ever it used to be that they used to meet
,' Mon. Tall. 129.19
(tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 ,q.v.). pl. 3(see Bergin, Ériu xii
5225 f. ). Abs. (a) No instance. (b)batis:a trian rocharsa[t]
Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC
viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ?batis gnatha ar buadhuiph
band, Anecd. ii 70.8 . Conj. (a) No instance. (b)-btis:
imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir
10ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 .comtis scítha, Snedgus u.
Mac R. § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís
brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC 4213. comdis fliuch iad do
deraib, TTebe 3711 .comtis, 2884 .nībtis omain neich
`they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii
15225 ).
Subj. Pres. s. 1 (a)-ba:ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 .
23b29 .niba dimicthe-se libsi`I should not be despised by you,'
21d3 .mainba aecne lib, 17c10 . (b)-ba,-pa,ropom(ropa,
v.l.),-rbom,-rbam,-rba,-bam; withma,madam:ni
20reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá
pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 .riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP
i 105.25 .acht ropom (ropa, LU)airdricsa, TBC² 571.
im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin,
BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satis-
25fied
, LU 8469 (FB).nírba cintach`may I not be guilty,'
Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y .corbam
cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crim-
nach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé,
ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210.
30 madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō
imorra ..., ML² 1495. s. 2 (a)-ba' :armba cháinchom-
raccach-so, Wb. 30b23 .cia ba loingthech, 6c9 .ciafa
firián, Ml. 36a32 .comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .
(b)bat,-ba,-pa,-bat,-pat,-rba(t),-rbot,-(b)sa(t): withcía,
35 cidat; withma,madat:ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa
frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a .nibát athboin-
gid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat
miscnech, 3503 .nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne
..., 3467 - 9 .ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss.
40 14 § 3.3 .bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 .nírba chreccach,
Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat
cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB).atraí coropat mor, 3533 .céin
bat béo, 3919 .nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech,
PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ...`if thou be a judge,
45thou shouldst know
,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn.
Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 .diamsa coemainech,
IT i 70.2 .diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . Buile Ṡ. 86.25 .nírsat
bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 .toich duit cidat rī, toich
duit cidat druī(to a child), Proc. RIA. iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3
50( LL 147a ).cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat
fīrēn flaith`if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15.
madhid trēn, ML² 1437. s. 3 IForms withoutro-. (i) Abs.
The formbaappears to be used only as jussivesubj.:
(a) ?bá tualang cách forcital alaili`let each be fit...,' Wb.
55 6d13 ;ba samlid dúib`be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both in-
stances the editors would readbadforba. (b)do Chríst ba
mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu |
gudem Críst let it be in fear..., 195 § 10 (but ?cf. 1 fa).
Conj. (ii) (a)bé(see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) :cia bé a mmēt
60adae`however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 .cip hé ade asberam,
25d11 . (b)cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda
saraigfed, 789 .cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v
386.15 .secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola,
206.2 .cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. Fug.H§ 69. cebé
65baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC 1768. cipia frisa
ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 .gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh,
TSh. 3985. (iii)-booccurs in the Glosses seeming some-
times to be the jussivesubj.(neg.) and once after in
whether , but these exx. may perhaps bepret.(but see (iv)
70below) : (a)ní bo comitesti(rectius chomitesti, Ed.)dó
`he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 .nibo intain no mbeid
ar súiltantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,'
27c9 .rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 . (b) No
instance. (iv) -p,-b: (a)níp tarisse lat`trust him not,'
75 Wb. 30d24 .nip sain a n-asberatetimmarádat, 28c1 .nip
crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.).arnáp hé som ...,
Wb. 6c7 .ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 .imb anacol dom fa
nac, Wb. 23a6 .immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 .im
fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 .sechip hé ...`whosoever it
80be
,' Wb. 3b15 .sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 .cip
cruth bíidpáxlibsi fri cách`howsoever it be,' 5d33 .cib
cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 .mainip in
chrud-so, 10a5 .manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml.
14d10 .cenib fír, 24d22 .cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc,
85 59a23 .cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 . (b)-p,-b,-pe,-be,
later-ba,-bo; withdía,díam:acht nip inbleoguin, Laws
ii 98.17 .bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai,
LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 .
mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 .ar
n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z .diam dlaí di
5chi[u]nn adairt, Críth Gabl. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam
chuibse cataid`to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 .
mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 .cach fuil druith
dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin
(? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin,
10 8318 .air nā ba (v.l.arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434.
arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth
Gabl. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá
mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus,
Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai`in
15whatever place
,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-
goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 .
cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt` whatever ,' Aisl. Tund. 96.9
manip do Chonchobor, Sc.MMD § 3.16 . PH 2080.
manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 .maniba t'ainmnet
20..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv
42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob
cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 .munup, Laws
iv 26.13 .menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. Fug.RE§ 23. minub,
BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC² 795. PH 1542.
25 minab, 6035 .munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 .
munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg,
Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU). The formarimpin the Glosses
always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml.
130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final,
30the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf.
airndip, see (v) below) : (a)arimp áigthidiu-de`that it may
be the more dreaded
,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 .arimp díthnad
... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 .arim tairismech,
25a9 .ised as maith la dia airimp (?leg.airndip) isin gess
35...`this God would have...,' Ml. 130b8 . (b)arim túalang
gabála[e] ríg, Críth Gabl. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in
cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin
Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sen-
charpait`er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten
40Wagens sein
,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob,
v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The
usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation isrop(see
sectionIIbelow), butcf.:adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a
aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm
45 DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 .in cū ruad ... coma taīseach
cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . Withcen co:cen cop foccus
a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . Aisl. MC 39.27 . PH 3100.
cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 . (v) (a)-dip,-dib:condip
slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 .condib cumme, 24a22 .is tacair
50arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 .airndip maith
a forcell`that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 .airndib
ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndipmay have either final or con-
secutive sense, see note onarimpin (iv) above).duús indip
fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 .dús cia port indib maith, 24 .
55(vi) Withma(má), (a)mad:mad cumme imned á cheli
eta imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 .mad cétnide a
n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 .mad du rúin`according to the
mystic meaning
,' Tur. 103. (b)mad,mád:mad a dligiud
ḟénechso(Corr., Ed.)is menbu, Críth Gabl. 11. mad nóeb
60arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna`if
it belong to the woman
,' Laws ii 402.1 .mádh táesca dhuit
iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach
é, TSh. 4315. (vii) Withcía although,that , (a)cith,cid:
deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 .cith etarṡuidigthe,
65 Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 .cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 .
cid doib doarrchet`though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16
(here the sense appears to beindic., see Thurn. Gramm.
§ 793 ).cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 . (b)cid,
gid:cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod
70foirge, Laws iv 18.19 .cid sain na conairi(pl. subject).
Cóic Con. Fug.H.§ 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC² 2596.
cid ed nevertheless:(b)cid ed nī rochotail, TBC² 2512.
gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6. cid ... cid,
cid ... nó whether(it be) ...or...: (a)ma gorith locc cith
75ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.).cid maid cid
olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 .cach réit cid precept cid labrad,
13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 .cid ho deacht maicc nó ho
deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .
(b)cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth Gabl. 225. Corm. Y 1167.
80 Serglige 679 . cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib,
KMMisc. 254 § 4. cid though it be has also the sense even ,
in which sense its verbal content must early have been
forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pro-
noun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:
85(a)cithisse`it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu).corrici
cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 .ceith cenmathá in tegdais
n-ucut`even besides,' Wb. 33a4 .cid ind fochith follongam
`even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 .ceth Máolruoin,
Mon. Tall. 135.24 .co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg.
1a2 . (b)coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 .ní
5dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono
cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 .ní thibrind i tindscra
cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.
IIForms withro-. (i) (a)rop,rob,ropo' (the formrob
occurs only beforebandm):rop corae doib fri dia`peace
10be with them
...,' Wb. 20d1 .rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail,
Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 .nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop
ar crist, Wb. 18a2 .acht robronach(=rob bronach, Ed.),
Ml. 86d12 .act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 .act ropo
cho torbu, 27 . (b)rop,rob,ropo':rop múr ar cech merblén'
15Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59.
rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn
rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht
rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob
tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 .riasíu ropo chúairddulchach,
20 Críth Gabl. 68.
The formrobo,robuand with inf. pron.rodbo,rodbu
occurs in the sense either, or (cf.Fr.soit ... soit). The editors
of Thes.Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the
first of two or more alternatives.
' It is so used in the great
25majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see
below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ
xxxv 404 f .q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei'
and the loss of the demonstrative pronouna n-oraníbefore
robo. Thurneysen ( Gramm. § 886 ) believes it to have been a
30potentialro-subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat.
uel .. uel.., orLat.aut .. aut... occur: (a)rodbo dia adroni
... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed..., Wb.
29d29 . 16d7 .fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s
`as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 .robo intí for-
35chaingl.siue qui docet, 5d10 .robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach,
Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 .robu óenlitribgl.uel singulis literis,
28a12 .robu cho adersetargl.uel emendentur... (uel...), Ml.
30d11 .robu a caratradgl.(uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas),
58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `asroburegularly refers
40to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl.uel
necessitudo').robu a nnu mothaigtisgl.aut stupentes, 44c6 .
109c3 . 121b6 . (b)rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm
n-etaig, LB 11b13 .innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o
littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y . (ii)-rop,-rup,
45 -rub: (a)corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 .
corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 .corop he to menmme,
Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 .corub
mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.
(b)-rup,-rub,-rob,-rop,-rab,-rap,-rip,-rp:corup messu
50de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC² 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in
mag, Trip.² 555. TBC² 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé)
nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv
62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 .curub cutruma cuit cach
fir dib, Cóic Con. Fug.H§ 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip
55ingnīma, TBC² 539 =corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR
2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed
`let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige
┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC² 640 =nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU
5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 .arnā rob
60olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ...
hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the finalborpdropped out, at
first before initialborf:arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon.
Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 .curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech,
Arch. iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro
65huain doib, 4997 . rel. (a)bes`,bas`:níi bes chotarsne
diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 .bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 .bes
miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.).céin bas mbéo, Wb.
10b23 .a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.). (b)bes`,bas`,bus`:
nech bes ardu, Críth Gabl. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48.
70 ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 .dírimm bas choímiu ná
bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 .
dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich
bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set
`of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 .do cach
75besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may
be infixed between rel., and its pred.:doeim dano in clī
innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y
275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 .
ech beissid fiu, 406.9 .cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe,
80besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da
fiu, Laws v 408.7 . pl. 1 Abs. (a) No instance. (b)ropond:
ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9
(ropo-nd=3 s.+inf. pron.pl. 1). Conj. (a)-ban`:co
comalnammar a pridchimmeetcomman (=co m-ban)
85dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 .a numman aircheltai,
Ml. 27b10 . (b)-ban,-rdar,-(r)bar; withcía,gidar:is
am comman tairisiu`'tis time that we should be...,' Fianaig.
26.14 .an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 .gidar
comaltai, TBC 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 .tiagam ass
con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat,v.l.) scithu
5oco, TBFr. App. § 16. pl. 2 Abs. (a)bede:conicfid-si
bede preceptori uili`ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb.
13a10 . Conj. (a)-bad:combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 .
arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 .arna bad huilcc,
5d38 .dia mbad mathi, 16a13 .ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 .
10? To this:annambaid (anambaid, MS.)buidig`when ye are
not content
,' Ml. 115b10 . (b)nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871.
nibfor cétludaig, 4872 . pl. 3 IForms withoutro-. No
absolute forms occur withoutro-. Conj. (i) (a)-bet`,-pat`,
-bat`:mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 .nó innabet o nach ainmm-
15diu etir`or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,'
Sg. 56b1 .arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 .combat irlamu-de
ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 .armbat eolig, 31d15 .
armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 .a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 .
cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 . (b)-bet,-bat:im damu nad be
20tairchesa (leg.bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 .mat
cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 .adubairt ... conod brath-
air iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 .acht conbat beoda,
TBC 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 .manibat óga a
frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517.
25 diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 . (ii)
Withma, (a)mat:mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb.
28c21 .mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .
(b)mat,madat,mádit:mat comaithi a folaid, no mat
comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 .mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla
30frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP
viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .
(iii) Withce,cía although , (a)cit:cit imdi far forcitlidi,
Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 .cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 .
etmuscreitfet cit hésidi`even they,' Wb. 5c2 . (b)cit,cidat,
35 ciambat:cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith
(leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid,v.l.) crécht-
naig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai,
SR 4833. (iv) Withcía,ce who,what , (a) No instance.
(b)cit:indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred
40Ul[ad] tell me what are the places..., LU 11056.
IIForms withro-.
Abs. (a)ropat`:ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii
293.7 ( SP i ).acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 . (b)
ropat`,robat`,robet,ropsat:ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.²
45 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud`may they be one,' Fél. Jan.
21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet
ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 .ropsat idain dīan-báis
ám, KMMisc. 210.3 . Conj. (a) No instance. (b) -rbat,
?-rsat:ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat
50úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 .nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035.
girbat linmara, TBC 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 .apair
ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot
maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ?gorsat lir a mmairb andas a
mbí, TBC 6015. rel. (a)beta`,bete`,bata`:beta téit
55`when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 .beda fiscina baptizerium,
Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.).donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 .
ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 .a mbata n-aersigthi,
Ml. 127a4 . (b)beta,bete,bida:mad aile da lina beta
olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 .itir na ceithre comaichaib
60beda neasa do, iv 116.2 .tech sruithi bet (leg.betc) fuirb-
thium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 .tri haidche bede cora, Laws v
438.24 .cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 .trian de
don ḟir bed a (leg.beda a) beich`whose bees they are,' iv
116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.
65 Subj. Past s. 1 (a)-bin,-benn:commin inricc dó`so that I
may be worthy thereunto
,' Wb. 24a11 .combin cosmail, Ml.
91b7 .arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 .nombin
dermatach, Ml. 20a4 .toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 . (b)
-badim,-badam:abraind nā badim (?sic leg.) slānsa ...
70ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC² 3532. bad cháined dom
ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig
(dia mbam airdrí,v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519. s. 2
(a) No instance. (b)-badat:da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha
co mbadad (leg.mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC²
75 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide,
RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ). s. 3 IForms withoutro-. (i)
Abs. (a)bed`,bad`:arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe
deacht don dóinacht`that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb.
13c2 .dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these
80two exx. we have the type of sentence in whichbidoccurs
in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below).din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg.
39b11 .ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 .dóig
linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 .bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 .ni
robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 .aimser ba (leg.bad,
85Edd.)chomadas dó, 21a1 .cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide
`whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13
(see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .). (b)bed`,bad`,pad,bud:
ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed
chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM).nad baí baili bád cuidbiu
dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC² 3242. BDD² 79.
5 mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 .cīa ragas ...?
Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere`who should it be cut C.', i 114
§ 3 .muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138.
ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC 1089. With inf.
pron.s. 3:tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il]ba-da-
10crichidiu (?leg.bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems).mar-
bān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo
badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 =badib amradair, LU
873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17.
s. 1:nī faigebasu curaid ...bádamfiusa, LU 3913. (ii) Conj.
15(a)-bed`,-bad` (mainbed(minbad,manibad) is regularly
folld. by acc.):mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 .combed
chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 .ni bed uilliu, 54b30 .
is cumme nibad móidem`it is the same as though it were
not boasting
,' Wb. 2b14 .amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 .mainbad
20éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 .
manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 .manipad taschidetaid,
136c2 .arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 .conapad firdía mac,
Ml. 21c12 .diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 .combad choitchen,
Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 .combath chomlan rithlunae , Thes.
25 ii 33.27 (Bv.).na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb.
10a16 .arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4
(Ardm.). (b)-bed`,-bad`,-pad,-bud,-bod:ised bud cóir
laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 .
Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 .
30 manipad lor, 128.15 .manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370.
minbad in mbáin mbic, Aisl. MC 107.7 .cid daitsiu nábad
lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 .dámadh
linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid
cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon.
35Tall. 133.8 .mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd.
i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 .ar na bud ed, PH 3074.
?go nach budh rí ar Israel tú`ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid
daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía
lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC²
40 154. (iii) (a)bid(this form, which Thurn. ( Gramm. § 806 )
suggests may be an unstressed form of vn.buith, occurs
regularly afteramal,oldaas,is cumme,in doich, in com-
parative and equative clauses and in a few other instances.
This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does
45not explain phrases wherebidfollowamal,is cumme,etc.
It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced bybedorbad,
and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal
bidis regularly folld. by acc.cf. mainbad, above):amal
bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 .amal bid claind
50noclantis, Ml. 63b9 .amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14
(Stowe M.).amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 .amal
bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg.nd.), 35c27 .is cumme
doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 .in doich bid saindóire
dúnni, 10d1 .is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem,
55 4b17 .ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml.
42b18 .arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12
(see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with
bedin Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ).ni meite bid machdad
forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 .ba coru tra bidadnuntiabit
60nobethhíc , Ml. 45b14 .soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii
294 § 3 ( SP iii ). (b)amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.²
87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 .amail bid a
haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 .amal bid fótrond ..., LU
9099 (FB).ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som,
65 ZCP viii 313.25 .ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and,
BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP
viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur
in O. Ir.:flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father
was not a chief
, Laws ii 200.21 .nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd
70(leg. bid) errdarcu, Aisl. MC 45.28 .ar cend neich bid
(budh,v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 .ingen
bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx.
O. Ir. would showbid:amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar
bud, 4098 .amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278.
75 is cumme lem bed (bid,v.l.App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth
mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC² 2758.
(cf.also:ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ).dōig leam
bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC² 884. (iv) Withma(má),
(a)mad:mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 .mad
80forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 . (b)mad,mád:mad meise con-ísed
mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund
robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. (v) Withcía,ce
although , (a)cid:ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tec-
mallad`though he were,' Wb. 16c25 . (b)cid:cid fín bárc
85do-téised treut, BDD² 740. IIForms withro-.ro-is
rare with past subj. The instances are: (a)act robad
tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 .ní ar maith friu ... act is
corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 . (b)
?ingé(readperhapsitge, Ed.)ropad limsa ol sésim adpand
do seinmtr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,'
5 Mon. Tall. 131.28 .acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v
124.76 .amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered
it a sin
, PH 3232. pl. 1 Abs. (a)bimmis,bemmis:amal
bimmis octarche`as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 .amal
bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . (b)amal bemís marb, PH
10 2967. Conj. (a)-bimmis:amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib,
Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 .commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb.
29b16 .commimis less huili, 6b21 . (b)-badar:acht co
mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC 35. pl. 2No instance.
pl. 3 Abs. (a)bitis,betis:nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate
15bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis`than though they had been
cutting down common trees
,' Ml. 92d6 .donaib déedib betis
chloithib, 131d11 .amal betis degmaini, 90a14 . (b)bitis,
betis,batis:amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba
bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27.
20 amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicuntbetis secht maic,
ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.).asberat araile batis trī
brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.).doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe,
Trip.² 1112. Conj. (a)-btis,-ptis:comtis indbaid i n-iris,
Wb. 10d33 .conabdis apstil, 5b15 .comtis ainmmnidi,
25 Sg. 7b2 .coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 .maniptis mu charait,
Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 .ni aisndet duaid airmdis héiusti
indí ..., Ml. 54a12 .airmtis ní etir, 79b11 .amtis forbristi
ind ríg, 85d9 . (b)-btis,-ptis:comtis secht maic, Trip.²
901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 .
30 comtís comarda síat, TBC 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do
chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10.
diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 .ciabtis
cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 .ciamdis
dimolta, i 21.5 . Withamal betisunder (a) above,cf.
35 marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarb-
dais meic do, 4097 . Withma (a)matis:matis huili conab-
dis apstiltantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles
only
,' Wb. 5b15 .matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 . (b)matisis
replaced in Mid. Ir. bydiambtís q.v.,supra. Fut. s. 1 Abs.
40(a)be:be sóir mo brethre`I shall be free as regards my
word
,' Wb. 4c18 . bé(biam,bum,v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid,
Hy. iv 8. (b)bea,bem,bam,bíam,bidam:bem (bea,
v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 =bam
tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y .in hed bam beo, SR
45 3187. Ériu iv 142.z .bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT
iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 .bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH
2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ...
dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC 1049 (v.l., Eg.).
bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348.
50 bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 . Conj. (a) No instance.
(b)-pam:ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 .
nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248. s. 2 Abs. (a) No
instance. (b)ba,basa,bat,biat,bidat:ba baeth, SR
5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Met. Dinds. iii 96.19 .
55 bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt
ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba,v.l.) fornocht, Met.
Dinds. iii 96.4 .bat (ba, bad,v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 .bát
nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, Proc. RIA iii
(3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 .biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ).
60 bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 .bidhit neim-
edach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb,
Proc. RIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form
of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula,cf.
biat, above). Conj. (a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives :
65 co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl.inluminabit tibi Christus)
but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which
is probably correct. (b)-ba,-bat:adbert fria drai ...
ni bam rai (?leg.niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ...,
BB 407a1 .da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH
70 2815. s. 3 Abs. (a)bid,bith:bid héet lib-si geinti do bith
in hiris, Wb. 5a13 .bid cummaetriam, 18a13 .bith sechma-
dachte, Sg. 147b3 .bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml.
90a9 . (b)bid,bith,beith,bed,bud:bid nath n-airec
fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 .bidsom fria toil`it (heaven)
75 will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 .bid misi, Trip.²
1963. Laws i 6.z .bid calma, TBC² 2469. bid hē lā a
phennati, Aisl. MC 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith
lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib,
Mon. Tall. 141.15 .rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir
80fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron.s. 2:bidat
eigen dola, Aisl. Tund. 101.x .ammarach bud maith do
threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 .budh
hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 .budh iomdha ann fós
arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068. Conj. (a)-pa,-ba:nípa
85cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 .níba cuit adíll,
14a8 .níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 .in
corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron.s. 3:
nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 . (b)-ba,-pa,-bo,-po,-bu,-pu,-b,
-bad,-bud:níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba
fír, Sc.MMD § 11.2 .nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 .
5 admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC²
2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F.,
3368 . With inf. pron.s. 2:níbat écen nach n-aill, MU²
1037 (LU). ?nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,'
Serglige 117 ).toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa(b
10inserted later, Ed.), TBC² 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind
chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 .nipo
fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC² 1048.
nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī
bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370
15(=nipi siursan, App. § 26 ).nī bad (ba,v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst.
40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd.
ii 1.15 . rel. (a)bes`,bas` :in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb.
20c10 .bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 .hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb.
17d20 . (b)bas`,bus` :Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon,
20 Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus,v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-
fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD).ni-sn-idnus sund nī
bus siriu, TBC² 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas
chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 .cīan bus chumain, ZCP
viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.
25 pl. 1 (a)bimmi,bemmi,bammi:isin chruth-sin bimmi
nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 . 12c9 .bemmi caelestis, 13d15 .isamlid
bamicoeheredes , 4a17 . (b)bar, ?batin:folaich in mac,
bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 .
batin aithrig is tír thall`we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this
30is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer
ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as :ba
don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, butcf. atin
budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).
pl. 2No instance. pl. 3 Abs. (a)bit:bit hé na precepta cétni
35no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 .bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 .
bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 . (b)bit,be(i)t,bat,biat,bidat:
bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne
fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 .bit lia mairb ... andate
a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD).bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind,
40 7233 (ib.).beit fir móra ar macáin bic | ...bid daim ríata
laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 .bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall.
130.1 .bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 .bat mairb fir, IT
iii 470.105 .bat lana, TBC 1055. ?in dóig bát dom éligudsa
ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me(?), LU 3277
45(obscure, perhapsbatiss. 2).biat mathi do chland, Proc.
RIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ).bidat gai géra,ib.
550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc
innas ..., CCath. 988. Conj. (a)-pat,-bat,-bet:nipat
ferr, Wb. 12d28 .nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 .níbat briathra,
50 Ml. 68c10 .a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 .anambet
ecailsi, 15d7 . (b)-pat,-bat,-pdat,-bad:nipat ili anmand
eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC 1692. nipdat duthaine,
SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, Aisl. MC 77.4 .im
bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 .ní bad sgíotha dot sgéul-
55aibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 . rel. (a)beta` :
beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 .beta messi, Ml. 70a9 . Sec. Fut.
s. 1 Abs. (a) No instance. (b)badam:cid andib badam slansa
mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.). Conj.-badam:
[ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M.`I were not likely
60to live
,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ). s. 2 (a) No instance.
(b)ropadat,badat:díambad curadmir do chosnam i
nEmain duit, ropadatren(forropadat trén, Edd.)for ōcaib
Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib,
TBC 1165. s. 3 IForms withro-. Abs. (a)ropad`,robad` ;
65 ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 .
Sg. 90b2 .robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 .
roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 .dorairngred dano rombad
oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 . (b)robad`,ropad`,rubad`;
robud` :robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chom-
70airche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach
húad, 10601 .robud sía, Arch. iii 304.16 .ropad chora,
PH 2593. robadwas later replaced bydobad:dobadh
cōir, Feis TC 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin,
ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which
75in turn gave way to the modal pret. Conj. No conjunct
ro-forms occur. IIForms withoutro-. Abs. These are
rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sen-
tences, but become more usual later. (a)bed` :conidfessed
cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 .bed messegl.ratum
80fore, 105b14 . (b)bed`,bad`,bud` (budseems not always
to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) :
asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad
toisigiu dún something that would be..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y
473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC² 2203. BDD² 126.
85 cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC² 692. ní bud fiú sain,
Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 .an
bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh
dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir.
would show robad :bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear
'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell
5would be radiant
, DDána 60 § 37. Conj. (a) The forms
withoutro-supply the conjunct of bothbedandrobad.
-bad`,-pad` :na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 .asbertis
cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 .níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .
(b)-bad`,-bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have
10been lenition) :imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC² 1330.
ni bad chained, TBC 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 .adubart-sa
... comadh fearr, Feis TC 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493.
fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. 1919,
93 § 36 .do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766. pl. 1and
15 2No instances. pl. 3 IForms withro-. Abs. (a)robtis,
roptis:epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 .
roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 . (b)robtis,
roptis:roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU
i 138.15 .asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra,
20 Anecd. ii 53.14 .robtis(roptís, LU)do renga, TBC² 1182.
Conj. No instance. IIForms withoutro-: Abs. (a) No
instance. (b)be(i)tis,beidis:robad do chland-su betis
comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ...,
TBC² 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 . Conj.
25 -btis,-ptis,-bdís:asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455.
connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.
Pret. s. 1 IForms withoutro-. Abs. (a)basa:basa
iudide ó écosc`I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .
(b)ba(sa),bam(sa),basam:ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 .
30 ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia-
burcharpat) =basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach,
Tec. Corm. § 8.8 .basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 .bása chomrar,
9335 .bassa collid giallasa, 9318 .bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd.
iii 53.10 .fam rí (bainrith,v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 .
35 ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii
53.20 .basam (bam-sa, bam-siu,v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii
71.7 . Conj. (a)-psa:nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 .
17c2 .hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním,
10c16 . (b)-psa,-bsa,-ba, ?-bam,-msa,-sam:nipsa chúsa
40gabála lis, LU 9325 =nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 .nipsa
cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 .nipsa (nirsam, nipsam,v.ll.) con-
dirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech,ib.(geinsam,
ciamsam,robsam,rosam,gersam,gerbam,gerbhum,v.ll.)
ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 =ciarsam ... ciarsam
45..., Fél. 52.37 .domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa
cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable(?), ZCP vii
309.24 .i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec.
Corm. § 8.6 - 7 .imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa
cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 =nipsa
50cháusa ..., LU 9327. ?cach crích ar bam cend`where I was
head
,' Proc. RIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ).pecdach
mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.
IIForms withro-. Abs. (a)rupsa,ropsa,robsa,rob:
rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 .doménarsa ropsa beo,
55 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 .durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu,
49b13 . (b)ropsa,robsa,ropsam,robsam,robsum,robam,
ropom:an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia
aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 .imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii
16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 .ropsam aithrech
60isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu
iv 153.4 .robsum flaith, Buile Ṡ. 126.6 . Met. Dinds. iii
310.85 .robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend,
Proc. RIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ).robam rí ar
ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537. Conj. (a)-rbsa,-robsa,
65 -rupsa,-rubsa:nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 .
anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 .corupsa lán diib, 104d3 .
annarobsa bithe, 45d6 .arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 .
arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 . (b)-rsam(-rbsam) (the sense
is very frequentlypres. indic.a survival of the original
70 perfectsense),-rbam:is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne
óen-lindi, Met. Dinds. i 4.42 .níorsum duine do éra,
ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 .níor sum
(níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus,v.ll.) taithleach na n-each
riamh, Ériu i 100.23 .gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu
75 ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7.
corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 .ciarbam treórach,
nírbam timm, Met. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tund. 96.4 .
gerbham sáeirfher séimh, Buile Ṡ. 28.10 .Brethnaigh níor
bham caroid-si, Duan. Finn i 87.y .or bham nóidiu since
80I was
, LL 282a12 . s. 2 IForms withoutro-. Abs. (a) No
instance. (b)ba,bat,basat:cia bátar do gníma intan
basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 .bat dín ar gád 's ar
guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Met. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad,ba,
v.ll.).a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha,
85 RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ). Conj. (a) No instance. (b)-bi:cot-
ráncamar ó bim (órbatv.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read
ó bi mac(D), wherebiseemspret. s. 2'). IIForms with
ro-. Abs. (a)robsa,rubsa:huare romsa ugaire doib`be-
cause Thou wast a shepherd unto them
,' Ml. 96d1 .arrumsa
dite-siu, 103a4 . (b)ropsa,rupsa,ropsat,robsat,ropat,
5 robat,ropot:an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi
do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (=ropsa,
LU 10771 ).intan ropsa (ropsat, basat,v.ll.) gilla, Tec.
Corm. § 8.2 .ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais`thou
shouldst have been healed
,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.)
10(= ropdatslán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)).uair ropsat cara,
PH 3099. LL 343d53 .intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i
104.36 .ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó
chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 .
robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 . Conj. (a) No instance.
15 (b)-rbsat,-rsat,-rsa,-rbat:ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth
that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16.
nirsat neóit, TBC 43. lēir dam ... |nārsatcara do Chellach,
CCellaig 447 (where the sense ispres. indic.).gérsa maeth-
macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 .cot-
20ráncamar órbat(v.l., see n.)mac, BDD² 1173. s. 3 IForms
withoutro-. Abs. (a)ba,bu(once in Tur.) (gemination
occurs afterba, see below) :ba frithorgon dó frithorgon
cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.).ba calar do galar caich,
ib. 16 (do.).ba uissiu sónquam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal).
25 29d8 .ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 .aní ba choitchen,
50a3 .a mba cloithe`when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 .
a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 .ar ba P. dubert baithis du
Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.).ba em carat`it were,
indeed, the part of a friend
,' Thes. i 3.4 .ar ba mmadach,
30 Ml. 135a9 .ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ).
air bu ainm leusommaledictusdo c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.
(b)ba,bu,bo,be(once),pa,fa,fá,fo,bad,bud:ba slán
iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal).ba lith mor
la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 .ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.²
35 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 .
Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT
i 75.6 (modal).ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin
fora athair, Sc.MMD § 12.9 .nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam
(rectiussh-) dōib, TBC² 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar
40bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the dense-
ness of
, TBC² 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104.
in ti ba (?=ba a) tir`the person whose land it was,' Laws
iv 4.29 Comm. With inf.pron. s. 3: ba-id-n-imomain-side
he was greatly afraid, TBC² 786. With suffixed-ch(= Lat.
45 -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) :do-luid tar feart a
cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal`und es war eine gewalt-
same Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe
,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr.
Thurn.,loc. cit.).bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 .nī ticc
dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, Aisl. MC 9.5 .ar bo fortachtaid dó
50día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a
mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC² 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith,
no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin
trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch
nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru
55delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances offa
are mostlyrel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use.
fáis the regular form in TSh. :is mé fa hairdbrethim binn,
Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 .curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 .
im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as
60í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii
150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh.
1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i
26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n],
Feis TC 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489.
65 5559 . 3715 ).ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr
sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall.
161.22 . ?bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 .
bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh
gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh
70gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 . Conj. (a)-pu`,-bu`,
-po`,-bo`, ?-p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) :nípu
accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 .nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26
(Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 .
Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.).cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 .ar
75nibu thacair, 33b13 .nibu techtae(`rectius:thechtae,
butcf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 .níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 .
conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 .in loc diambu
thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 .nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 .nípo
úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 .napo chenéel, 5a14 .nibo
80cen fochidi, 24c19 . ?nip(`leg. nipu? or is itsubjunctive?,'
Ed.)ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 . (b)-pu`,-bu`,-po`,
-bo`,-p`,-b`,-ba`,-fa`,-bad(as lenition was somet. marked
we may assume it was regular) :rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.²
2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC² 1280.
85 napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 .asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon.
Tall. 133.10 .ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul
serci, IT i 77.2 .nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21
ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 .cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a
agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC²
1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo(LUcombo) thairis docher,
5 1737 .ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD²
549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM).combo
chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 .iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli,
8535 (FB).nī fo cīan, TBC² 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam
dōib, TBC² 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z .ba
10fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 .nīb
sī t'opar comadhas, TBC² 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 .
roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y
883.32 .níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth
ōir, TBC² 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125.
15 co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach
for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here
of lenition marked aftercomba).taitned fria in grían co
bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU
752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 .co nebairt co mbad
20mac don rig he, FDG 724. IIForms withro-. Abs. (a)
rupu`,rubu`,ropu`,robu`,ropo`,robo` :rupu sí a rroilic,
Wb. 33a22 .aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.).rubu
fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 .Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu,
Ml. 63b5 .ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 .hore rombu
25thoissech, Wb. 33a20 .ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 .robu
foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 .ropo thol,
14b3 .ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15.
amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 . (b)ropu`,robu`,ropo`,
robo`,rupa`,ropa`,roba`,rop`,rob`,rap`,ro bud;dore-
30placingro:do bo`,do ba`,do bu`,dob`,do bud;dorob
(where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly
always folld. by a vowel orḟ) :rob e a n-immed conna ...
`such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i In-
trod. ).sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851.
35 TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél,
Mon. Tall. 136.23 .ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo
suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo
chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre
Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287.
40 Mon. Tall. 136.20 .(asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine
hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 .an romba (arrombúi,v.l.) dech do
thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 .is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech
Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill,
BDD² 240 (=ropo, LU 6743 ).rop é fochond ná dilend,
45 LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 .rob aille
leo, Corm. Y 503. Sc.MMD § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob
ferr icht, Met. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-
m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 .rap aithrech, Eriu
vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50.
50 dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō,
ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 .doba dhainmidh
dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584.
dob fhíor, Feis TC 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú,
KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís(utinam
55saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal).do búdh tusa
cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 .do budh [de] chloind
Cuillinn ..., Feis TC 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā
an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht,
Ériu v 246.228 . Conj. (a)-r(o)bu`,-r(u)bu`,-rbo` (the
60exx. in which the vowel ofrois not syncopated are all
from Ml.) :nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 .nírbu chuman
leu, Ml. 124b5 .hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 .
donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 .corbu écen, Wb.
32c17 . Ml. 31b16 .corrobu bec, 131b12 .conrubu chrín,
65 99a2 .indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11.nírbo
sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 .nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .
(b)-rbu`,-rpu`,-rpo`,-rbo`,rba`,-rob`,-rb`,-ra,-r`,-rsa(t),
-rso:nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu
chían, LU 1756 (ICM).corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu
70tholgdae, Fél. Prol. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair,
AU i 394. 13(A.D. 878).nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562.
nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair
letartha, TBC² 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd.
v 20.25 .nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 .
75 PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 .gurbha
(gur fa,v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a
bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 .nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87.
nirb oróil, Aisl. MC 111.7 .nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274.
níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided
80narb inmain, Sc.MMD § 24d .ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do
shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co
mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis
ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC² 2020. nīr cōir, Arch.
iii 221.24 (modal).nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis TC
85 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ...,
Donlevy 214.y (modal).níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas
nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal).créad is iontuigthe as
sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong,
LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar
lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deigh-
5mheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal).
ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig
... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal).ónar thana lucht
loingsi`by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. Finn
i 81.9 . The ending-rsa,-rsadmay have arisen on the
10analogy of the1st and2nd sg. -rsam,-rsat(qq.v.above) :
derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2.
nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1.
ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 .carsa dúal don
aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?,
15 ZCP viii 553.29 .ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 .
TBC 1935. ciarsa dam`though it were a bull,' CRR § 5.
brugaid ... darsat (?leg.darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 ,
butcf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 .Cf. pl.:
carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 . pl. 1 INo forms without
20 ro-occur. IIForms withro-. Abs. (a)robummar:robumar
cuindrichthigl.erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 .huare robummar
bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 . (b)ropsar,ropdhar:ropsar
marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .ropdhar cocle
cridi, ... ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, TBC 3533 - 5 . Conj. (a)
25 -rbommar:nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdigl.
non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 . (b)-rsar:cid sinni nirsar
malla, RC vii 294.81 . pl. 2No instances. pl. 3 I Forms
withoutro-. Abs. (a)batir,batar:iarsindí batir inricci du
báas huili, Wb. 5c14 .batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 .
30 air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6. (b)batir,batar,
bat:batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm.Y 1018.14 .
batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 .
BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir,v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél.
June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM).bátir īalla bātar inde, Aisl. MC
35 89.26 .forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv
178.15 .batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm.Y 698.37 .
SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár
hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 .bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia
i 122 § 3. § 4 .bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 .
40 bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22. Conj. (a)-btar,-ptar:
nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 .ciaptar
mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 .a namtar tuidchissi, Sg.
6a13 .amtar mbati`when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .
(b)-btar,-ptar,-btor,-but:céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol.
4574. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133.
níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm.Y 398 .
nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 .amdar suidigthi ...
forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU
8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomar-
50cair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm.Y 1059.58 .gu
mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, Arch.
iii 3.12 . IIForms withro-. Abs. (a)robtar,roptar,robatar
(Ml. only),robdar:nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 .
hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 .robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 .déde hí
55roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii
11.42 (Bcr.).is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 .
78b12 .rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ...,
96b5 . (b)robtar,roptar,raptar,robdar,robdur, ?ropat:
ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm.Y 690.4 .robtar
60auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449.
robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC² 835. Anecd. i 46.12 .ar
ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 .arinni robdur ceithri uidhi,
Laws i 262.4 .ropat móra do berta(? orleg. ropsat), IT
iii 484.281 .ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC
65 vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149.
TBC 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, Buile Ṡ. 18.26 .
robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this :
na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (?leg.ropsat triuin), SR 3983.
Conj. (a)-rubtar,-ruptar,-roptar:isuaignid ni rubtar
70gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 .conruptar fadirci ind usci,
Ml. 40d16 .ceruptar enartu, 49a17 .arrumtar doirthi,
34d10 .déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . (b)-rbtar,
-rptar,-rtar,-rbat,-rpsat,-rsat,-psat,-bsat,-psatar:
nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar
75fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC 3242. ciarbat ile,
Proc. RIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ).garbat dis-
cailtig, TBC 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb.
Gab. 118.1 .corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig
(nirbot, nirbad, nirbo,v.ll.), Met. Dinds. iii 78.24 .nirpsat
80[m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a
dhinghmhail, v 158.210 .nirsat methol a n-athól they were
not a band in the second drinking
?, BCC 290.28 .a mbrugh-
aidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha,
RC xiv 28.12 .cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat
85comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 .cārsat comadha sin,
ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 .ciapsat guir fri crabud
nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 .
batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii
53.8 . In : gomsaddaerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP
viii 546.7 . the form ispres. pl. 3but the sense calls for
5 sec. fut. pl. 3.Cf. 545.21 .
Onbuithasvn.of copula see Thurn. Gramm. § 817.
Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith
iarmui do Abram, 3498 .