Print Edition

A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U


1 in def. art. the.See Thurn. Gramm. § 467 ff . Zeuss pp.
210 - 217 .

Paradigm in O.Ir.
5
Masc. Fem. Neut.

Sing.
N. in, int ind', in', int a n-
10 A. in n-, -(s)in n- in n-, -(s)in n- a n-, -(s)a n-
G. ind', in', int inna, na ind', in', int
D. in' -(s)ind', ind', -(s)ind', in', ind', int,
-(s)in', -(s)int, -(s)in', -nd', -n' -(s)ind', -(s)in',
-nd', -n', -nt -(s)int, -nd',
15 -n', -nt

Plur.

N. ind', in', int inna, na inna, na
20 A. inna, na, -(s)na
G. inna n-, na n- for all genders
D. -(s)naib

The formsint,-nt,-(s)intare used beforeṡ, exceptint
25ofn s. masc.which occurs before vowels.
The formsna,inna g s. fem.,n p. fem.andneut., anda p.
of all genders, geminate follg. consonants and prefixhto
vowels (but thishis very rarely written in O.Ir.Cf., how-
ever, innahirise, Sg. 209b24 ).
30Before thedualthe art. always has the formin,-nexcept
indda la, Thes. ii 33.21 (Bv.).
Thedat.forms without preposition,in,ind,int, occur
in the formation of advv., seeII (a)below.
Irregularities are not uncommon,e.g. indforint,intfor
35 ind,etc.See Strachan, ZCP iv 62 - 3 and Zeuss,loc. cit.
The original initials-appears only in thedat.andacc.
after prepositions which originally ended in a consonant,
with which it unites to produce-ss-,e.g. cossin n-óin, Wb.
2a21 .isin anmim, 9c30 . Thes-does not remain after
40 OCthough this does not lenite a follg. subst.TRElenites
a subst. but thes-of the art. remains, perhaps through
analogy. AfterFOR, which did not originally lenite, occur
forms both with and without -s-, those with -s- being the
more usual:forsin dígail, Wb. 1d2 .fornaib gnímaib,
45 5a5 . After prepositions originally and in O.Ir. ending in
vowels both the initials-and the vowel of the article are
lost:ón bunud, Sg. 33b2 .dind insci, Wb. 5c16 .dont
lathur,ib.WithOCoccurocin(d)(so always in Wb.) and
ocon(d); withIMM,imminandimmun.
50In medial position-nd-had become-nn-by the O.Ir.
period but in a few archaic examples,-nd-is written: indá
érrendgl.stigmata, Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu).inda fodb
gl.exuias, Thes. ii 47.24 (see Thurneysen, ZCP iii 53 ).
dundaibabstolaib, Thes. ii 247.12 (Camb.).dendibh Air-
55giallaib, AU i 178.8(A.D. 726). After prepositions the
-n-is single even between vowels:cosnaib,frisna,donaib.
Occasionally even in the O.Ir. glosses the first syllable of
the dissyllabic form is dropped, and this becomes the rule
later:na teora persana, Wb. 9c30 .na cétne tuisten, 21b4 .
60 na cetnae rainne, Sg. 18b1 . For other exx. see below. In
the follg. instances from Sg., in (acc.) seems to have dropped
out after-rand before a numeral, leaving an eclipsingn.
etar ṅdi rainn`between the two parts,' Sg. 2b2 .etar ṅdá
n-ulla , 45b19 .far n-óeṅdeilb`according to the same para-
65digm
,' 90b2 .for n-óin ṅdeilb, 201b6 .
The forms in-d(ind,-sind,-nd) remain only before
vowels and before lenitedf,r,l,nand, in Wb., sometimes
also before lenitedmandb.
In forms such asdinab fochidib, Wb. 11b4 ,dinab gabalib,
70 13d33 ,arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 , the quality of the final
-bof the article is assimilated to that of the following
initial.d p.forms without the final-bdeveloped from
such examples asdonaballaib, Wb. 12b2 ,huana fochaidib,
Ml. 54a18 ,hona mainénaib, 69c5 , where the final of the
75article became assimilated to a following initial labial.
These forms, however, are still infrequent in the O.Ir.
period. Three times in the glosses then p. fem.andneut.
form occurs asmasc.: innaleomain, Ml. 80a10 . natri
recte, Wb. 29a16 . nasothe, Sg. 64a14 (see Thurn. Gramm.
80 § 309 ).
Theart.is regularly sg. before collectives and personal
numerals.
When an ordinal numeral adj. follows the art., in the older
texts the inflection is regular:na dechmaide bliadna, IT
85 iii 54 § 99. inna treisi dūalchae, ZCP iii 25.35 (but see
2 tress).inna cōicthe dūalche, 26.26 ; but later it varied,
themasc.form of the art. being somet. used before a fem.
noun:n s f. inochtmad taidbsi, PH 6716 ; butcf. inceth-
ramad taidbsi, 6702 .is í so in t-ochtmad plāg, 7653 .g s f.
nahochtmadi oesi, 3582 .i gcionn an treas bliadhna, Keat.
5 iii 1919.
The chief changes occurring in the form of the article in
Mid.Ir. are (i) Then p. masc.formsind,in,intgradually
disappear and are replaced by the forms common to the
fem.andneut.,inna,na. (ii) By 1000 A.D.,a n-in then s.
10anda s. neut.has virtually disappeared, the only certain
examples in SR being: alleth n-aill, SR 5152 , ambé, 5974
(see Strachan, Mid. Ir. Decl. p. 7 ). (iii)-(s)naibin thed p.
gives way to-(s)na. (iv) the-dforms are less common.
(v) the monosyllabicnatends to displaceinna.
15In Mod. Ir.in,ind>an,an t-.
IForms (divided into (a) forms from O.Ir. glosses, (b)
forms from other texts). Sing. nom.
masc.
(a) infer, Wb. 22c9 .in corp, Ml. 22d9 .in ball, Wb.
20 12b11 .in senduine, 27b8 .int athir, 4b13 .
(b) intothrus, Críth Gabl. 47. in sluag, LU 4563. in
t-ara, 4507 .in cing, 347 .in fer, PH 92. in t-espuc, 25 .
in slog, 7237 .an samhradh, TSh. 6345. an t-adhaltrach,
6482 .an ciste, 2951 .
25 fem.
(a) indleire, Wb. 13d15 .ind nóibe, 9c30 .ind rún,
Ml. 45a3 .ind fáilte, Wb. 16b2 .in fírinne, 9c30 .ind almsan,
17a3 .in ben, 22c9 .ind bendacht, 19b15 .in tol, Ml.
18c9 .in chiall, Sg. 27a8 .int ṡillab, 25a1 .cf. ind sillab,
30 26a4 .
(b) indḟlaith, Críth Gabl. 573. ind ingen, LU 4525.
ind rígan, 5205 .ind lánamain, 5403 .in tslige, 5077 .inn
orcuin, BDD² 493. ind aimser, PH 5032. in eclais, 86 .
in tslanti, 275 .in rīghan, ML² 45. an aislinge, 69 .an
35chiall, TSh. 985.
neut.
(a) a n-accobor, Wb. 3d3 .a mbás, 15b28 .a teg n-oiged,
4a7 .a ndede n-isiu, Ml. 62c3 .a laithe, 21c3 .a folad, Sg.
3a2 .a rrind, 70b7 .a nnu-iedniss, Wb. 15b2 .
40(b)a n-ag, LL 112b31 (Sc.MMD).a n-ude, LU 4866.
a llá-sa, 5039 .in laa, 5057 .a llathe, 9743 .a n-ainm, 6182 .
in n-écosc, PH 6442. a sessed ngrad, 6246 . (Cf. in t-ocht-
mad grad, 6251 ).in ainm, 672 .in iach-lind, 381 .in
ní, 897 .ind ni, 5251 .an ni, 6194 . Acc.
45 masc.andfem.
(a)frissin popul, Ml. 46b26 .trisin recht, 46c20 . indigail,
40c3 .in soscéle, Wb. 18c10 .frisin n-iarfaigid, Ml. 20c9 .
in n-almsin, Wb. 16d7 .tresin n-aimsir, Sg. 188a26 .
(b)fón slóg, LU 4654. lasin n-íngin, 4522 .in domon
50ndron, 3566 .in mbelra, PH 2619. frisin ṅdeilb, 125 .
in anmain, 2068 .romolsadar in t-ardrīg, ZCP v 25 § 10.
ro gab naire in t-airdrigh, St. Ercuil 1135. gurab é Dia
... do-rinne an bás, TSh. 1052. an cheist, 2855 .
neut.
55(a)ambúaid , Wb. 11a6 .tresa n-acomol, Sg. 32a8 .
trissa ndede-se, Ml. 123c5 .cossa laa-sa, Wb. 23a17 .
(b)isa tír, Im. Brain § 62. afér, LU 4733. lasa comérge,
4880 .isin n-ármag, 4943 .issa sudiu, 9080 .isi[n] sudi,
9082 .in n-aicned doennai, PH 179. in mboimm, 2373 . Gen.
60 masc.andneut.
(a) inbetho, Wb. 1a3 .in cháich, 2b11 . indlóge, 3c1 .
ind rechto, 15a34 .ind fir, 13a12 .ind ḟolaid, Sg. 28b19 .
ind apstail, Ml. 26a2 .int soirtha, 46b26 . (cf. ind senduini,
Wb. 27b8 .ind ṡrotho Sg. 35b7 ).int srotho, Ml. 93b11 .
65 in tairmchrutto, Wb. 15b6 .
(b) inmuilt, Críth Gabl. 73. in tairb, LU 4610. in chon,
5013 .in pheta eóin, 5289 .ind ríg, 4757 .in rothclessa,
8844 .ind laí, 4858 .in locha, 9098 .ind athig, 4684 .ind
fir, 4765 .in tṡeuin, 4508 .ind rig, PH 4365. an fhir, 1177 .
70 in apstail, 1991 .ind ecraibthig, 6062 .ind imdibe, 5652 .
in t-sacairt, 2508 .in slaníceda, 5146 .an fhedhma, ML² 20 .
ind fhir, TTebe 1544 .and fhir, 2433 .inn eich, 2278 .
an bhrátha, TSh. 1014. an tsein-reachta, 404 .
fem.
75(a)inna deacte, Wb. 5c16 .inna flaithemnachtae, Sg.
2a1 .inna aidche, Ml. 21c3 .na aimsire, Sg. 188a28 .inna
hirise, 209b24 .
(b)na llongsi, IT i 77.3 .na mmucci, LL 112b43 ( Sc.MMD
§ 8 ).inna conaire, LU 4710. na glassi, 4797 .na haidche,
80 9058 .ina óidche, PH 1490. na hindsci, 6213 .na colna,
TSh. 947. na haithne, 1009 .
Dat. m.,f.andn.
(a)isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 .forsind immarmus,
1d2 .dind fiur, 22c9 .dind failti, Ml. 21c3 .isin anmim,
85 Wb. 9c30 .huant firinni, Ml. 57d8 .isind laithiu, 21c3 .
dont lathur, Wb. 5c16 .isint saltair, Ml. 23c19 .isind salm,
50d4 .isin biuth, Wb. 12c16 .dind béstatu, 5c16 .don
duini, 4b3 .dond macc, 7c13 .
(b)don chath, LU 4557. isin phupull, 4620 .iarsind
frecra, 4772 .don tslúag, 4570 .don ṡlúag, 4748 .dond
5ríg, BDD² 99. don ríg, 85 .asind aimsir, PH 4928. isin
eclais, 3181 .don tsacart, 3140 .assin sinagoig, 110 .asind
lucc, 4099 .donn ītadhach, ZCP viii 215 § 75. don fhíréan,
TSh. 1146. don pheacthach, 1137 .don tsaidhbhir, 954 .
san bhioth, 832 . (cf. san mbioth, 837 .san Sabboit, 4114 ). Plur. nom.
10 masc.
(a) inphreceptori, Wb. 5a2 .in chnamai, Ml. 22d7 .in
pecthaig, 55d11 .ind rig, 85d10 .ind apstail, 42b7 .ind
fir, Wb. 5a5 .ind ḟilid, Sg. 162a3 .int soirthi, Ml 19b11 .
inna leomain, 80a10 .na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 .
15(b) natrí maccáin, Fél. Aug. 2. innadruing-sea, Fél.
Ep. 285. (All other examples in Fél. follow strict O. Ir.
paradigm, Stokes). indasacairt, Mon. Tall. 134.11 .in
doíni, TBFr. 55. na doíni, 306 .in maic, LU 4900. ind
eich, 4733 .na heich, 5070 .in tṡlóig, 4609 .inn óicc,
20 BDD² 896. na heóin, 142 .ind eolaig, PH 7313. in augtair,
6944 .na noim, 3649 .na hapstail, 1826 .inda hapstail,
5371 .ind apstail, 6720 .ind ēcis uile, Anecd. iv 93.10
(Corm.).na tri coicait, LL 114a29 ( Sc.MMD § 21b ).na
trenmilid, TTebe 4478 .na cinn, TSh. 73. na haidhmillte,
25 6088 .
fem.andneut.
(a) indáérrend(gl.stigmata), Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu).
innabriathra, Ml. 22c5 .inna ancride, 27b15 .inna anm-
mann, Sg. 28b18 .
30(b) natigi, IT i 74.7 . innabuidne, LU 4685. na bai,
5398 .na cenna, 4806 .na mna, PH 4997. na créachta,
TSh. 1013.
Acc. m. f.andn.
(a)inna fíraingliu, Wb. 9c10 .frisna preceptori, 14d37 .
35 lasna fileda, Sg. 63b4 . narúna, Wb. 12c11 .lasna anmmann,
Sg. 51b10 .
(b) nafiru, LU 4626. inna heonu, 5159 .inna echraidí,
4712 .na pecdachdu, PH 3619. na briathra, 3660 .na
cóic ṡéotu, Críth Gabl. 162. inna .vii. sa, 307 .na teasta,
40 TSh. 6771.
Gen. m. f.andn.
(a) innandóine, Wb. 5c16 .inna fer, 7c8 .inna mban,
22c10 . nan-abstal, 18d14 .na sacardd, Sg. 54a11 .na
conson, 9a19 .na forcetal, Wb. 16a12 .inna rrath, 15c3 .
45(b) inandescipul, Hib. Min. 54. innamuccaide, LU
4670. nanGalión, 4648 .na fíren, PH 437. na ḟer(sic
leg.), 1017 .na mbeo, 3648 .na n-ilberla, 5484 .airdena
ana cóic la ndéc ria mBrath, RC xxviii 310 § 1. inna fer,
TTebe 1845 .na n-ánrad, 951 .na bpeacthach, TSh. 991.
50 na sácramainteadh, 1561 .
Dat. m. f.andn.
(a)donaib ballaib, Wb. 7d14 .donaballaib ailib, 12b2 .
arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 .dinaib fochaidib, Ml. 19b11 .
isnaib consonaib, Sg. 9a22 .donab huilib doinib, 189b9 .
55 forsna huilib remṡuidigthib, 212a13 .ocnafothaircthib
palnacdib, 217a4 .honai gabalaib, Ml. 54b25 .donab
nemindithib, Thes. ii 33.28 (Bv.).
(b)oconaibh insibh, AU 851. donaib Galionaib, LU
4659. dinib collaib, 4937 .dona druídib, 5061 .dina lecaib,
60 5889 (H).forna bochtaib, PH 3603. dona noemaib, 3620 .
donaib maithib ┐ dona holcaib, Ériu iii 2.13 .fornaib coic
cathrachuib, ii 140.5 .dona hōgaib, ML² 173. dona
daoinibh, TSh. 968. arna heasbadhaibh, 973 .
Dual.
65(a) In the O.Ir. glosses, before the dual, theart.always
has the formin,-n:Nom. m. inda fersin, Ml. 58a11 .f. in
di bai, 2b11 .n. inda n-ainm, 34d6 .Acc. m. inda airdigtha,
Sg. 77a8 .f. etirindí ṡillaib, 59a17 .Gen. m. cechtarinda
popul, Ml. 46b30 .n. cechtarinda leithe, Sg. 25b6 .Dat. f.
70 isindib bliadnib, Thes. ii 30.35 (Bcr.).n. isindib desm-
rechtaib-so, Ml. 114b1 . ( indda laoccurs in the Vienna
Beda, Thes. ii 33.21 .).
(b) Later theart.preceding the dual is sometimesna,
butinremains more common: indá erred(g.), LU 8057.
75 nadá ech(a.), 8590 . nada ban(g.), 8375 . nadá Maine
(n.), BDD² 106. inda gilla chétna(a.), TBC 677. túath
indá Maine(g.), BDD² 210. nada ánrath ┐ na da rind
n-agha(n.), TTr.² 583. nadá n-ug n-urchoidech(g.), MR
110.4 . nadá neirrech(g.), Laws iv 336.16 . andā rīg (na,
80 v.l.)(n.), ML² 776. asna dib berlaib, Lec. 167d31 .don
da thóisech, Ériu v 152.126 .
II Articleused in formation of adverbs ( Thurn.
Gramm. § 251.3 and § 379 , § 382 . Zeuss 608 - 9 ).
(a) When nouns of time and manner are used adverbially
85in thedat. sg., they may be preceded by the article,e.g. in
chruth as coir, Wb. 7b1 .in chruth sin, 7d16 .ind echt sa,
3a7 ; butcf. cruth ro pridchissem, 24c17 .inni rombatar
riam hí tempul, Ml. 62b2 .
(b) In O. and Mid. Ir. the article (but see alternative
explanation, Thurn. Gramm. § 379 ) was used with an adj.
5in the dat. sing. neut. and with some participles in-deto
form an adverb. The follg. list is illustrative only:in
biuccgl.paulatim, Sg. 12b1 .in mór, Wb. 14b21 .in már
gl.adeo, Sg. 8a2 .in deurb` certainly ,' Ml. 70b2 .ind fír
` truly ,' Wb. 14c32 .ind ḟír, Sg. 106a5 .in demingl.quidem,
10 Ml. 37a13 .int soergl.libere, 31b18 .int sainriud, 54a22 .
in chomocus` nearby ,' Sg. 188a19 .ind imdugl.passim,
Ml. 35b5 .in fortgidiu` covertly ,' 30a3 .in chlidiu, 50c13 .
in chotarsnugl.e contrario, Sg. 17b9 .ind ulcc male, Hib.
Min. 432. ind infholach secretly , PH 6085. in infholuch,
15 7998 . In a few exx. the form of the adj. is that of thenom.:
indutmall, Wb. 26b10 (but this form may also have been
used for dat.).in madae, 19d16 .ind immdae, Sg. 26a5 .
Ped. ii § 419 explains this as being due to the similarity
of nom. and dat. masc. and neut. forms in some adjj.Cf.
20also:in tsainrethaig, LU 5514.
With compar. and superl. of adjj. to form comparative
advv.:ind ichtarchugl.inferius, Ml. 24d30 .int serbugl.
amarius, 24c10 .in máamgl.primum, Wb. 1c20 .ind
luindiugl.commotius, Ml. 32d1 .ind feliugl.uericondius,
25 58b1 .ind lugugl.minus, 123c12 .in mó ┐ in mó, Trip.² 2108 ,
2628 .in mor-mo, PH 3369 , 3605 . See Thurn. Gramm. § 382.
(c) In the case of adjj. in-d(a)e(exceptimdae) and
participles in-th(a)e(but seein fortgidiu,in chlidiu, above),
instead of the dative a form in-id,-ithcombines with the
30art. to form the adv. A few instances also occur of advv.
formed in this way from substantives. From adjj.:in
doracdid`in the Doric fashion,' Sg. 204b9 .in chorpdid
gl.corporaliter, Wb. 27a12 .ind óindid once , Ml. 29a3 .int
slanidid` salutarily ,' 71a1 .in tuailngigthid` deigningly ,'
35 78c1 .ind inchlididgl.latenter, 100c7 .in tuasailcthid
` absolutely ,' 32d5 . From substt.:in mesid(<mess) gl.
iudicialiter, Ml. 51c21 .ind frithoircnid(<frithorcun)
` offensively ,' 127c23 .in diglaid(<dígal) gl.ulciscenter,
62d3 .ind áirmith(<árim) ` numerically ,' Sg. 27a17 .
40 IIIUsage.
The article is always proclitic and is used before a sub-
stantive to express the definite character of that substantive
unless this is already apparent either from the nature of
the substantive itself, as in the case of proper names, or
45from some accompanying defining word or phrase,e.g.
when the substantive is followed by a definite genitive, or
preceded by a possessive adjective.
AExx. of the ordinary use of def.art.:accaldam auctor
ind recto`an address to the teachers of the Law,' Wb. 3c4 .
50 risiu rocloammar in fogur`before we hear the sound,' Ml.
112b12 .intan labratar ind ḟilid`when the poets speak,'
Sg. 162a3 .oc déscin na macraide, LU 4859. in trénfir ┐
ind láith gaile, 8104 .an cúigeadh cinéal, na mairtírigh,
TSh. 4842. In:amal in scrissid .i. amal in n-altain n-áith
55`as a scraper i.e.,as a sharp razor,' Ml. 72b8 , translate:
as the scraper etc., regarding it as a type of instrument
rather than a single instrument of its kind?
Thearticleis used
(a)in the sense ofeach,every, alsoa single in such phrases
60as:ced fan fer, St. Ercuil 1471. 1532 .berad-sa anam a
flaithess duit a n-agaidh an ruainde da fuil ad brat`for
every thread in thy cloak
,' BCC 358.14 .is assu duinni in
fer cech laí andás a cét cach n-aidchi one man every day,
LU 5622.
65(b) sometimes withcách, when this is followed by a
relative clause:ní lat in cách forsa mmitter`not thine is
everyone on whom thou passest judgment
,' Wb. 6b22 .úar in
cách dodechaid úad, Trip.² 1198. congnamh lásan ccách
nó chathaighfeadh dar cenn an chreidimh, FM vi 2290.22 .
70(c) withoen-, intensifying the idea of singleness:nabīd
D. fut ind ṡamlāi oc breith na hēnbrethi`giving a single
judgment
,' ZCP xiii 179.1 .con-accai ni ... .i. in n-aenmnái
for fertais in charpait, TBC 202. hespach do neoch a thríall
acht dond oen ḟialluch, 415 .
75(d) in speaking of two things (cf.Fr.l'un, Germ.der
eine):focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ... Níbo
moo in band oldas a chéle one stroke was not greater than the
other
, LU 5006. timchillid a teach ón dorus colaile, RC
xxiv 145.14 .dā ṡenrand ... dun rand díb ... don rund aile,
80 Fianaig. 48 § 14 , § 15 .
(e) frequently, and particularly after verbs of seeing,
before a noun which is logically indefinite to draw attention
to it and to render the narrative more vivid (for an alter-
native explanation see Thurn. Gramm. § 470 ):co facatar in
85tsentuinne they saw an old woman, Corm. Y 1059.43 .co
n-acca ara chind in fer ┐ leth a chind fair, LU 4933. co
n-aca Cú in n-ócben cuchi, 6082 .co n-acca in tech find,
Aisl. MC 67.12 .co n-accas na trí coícait ban co n-inaraib
corcraib, TBFr. 258. rataiges in triar marcach dochom in
tige, LU 6779. is and dosnarraid in fer máeldub, 6820 .
5 doringni in mac bec in tres gním`eine dritte That,' TBC
1068. duscōtar īarum condusrulai isin mag n-ālaind co
n-acatar an rīghrāith isin [maig], ZCP iii 459.18 .is iarum
bert in Liath Macha na tri dergruathra, RC iii 181.36 .
(f) before nouns followed by the demonstrativesso,
10 sin,tall,ucut:in chrud sin, Wb. 13a6 .tarsin corp sin
15c16 .in teintide tall, ZCP v 25 § 7. isin tsalm tall, Ml.
58a11 .don mac so, BDD² 107. in tan sin, 130 .in triar
ucut, 295 .
BThe article is not usually used before (a) personal names.
15In O. Ir. names of individuals take the article only when
they are qualified by an adj. or a demonstrative, or when
used as common nouns (e.g. á ṅIacob the name Jacob, Ml.
34d6 ):ol Duaid, Ml. 95d7 .mad la Cirine`according to
Jerome
,' 74d13 .ho Isaác, Wb. 4c7 .for érlam Patraic, Thes.
20 ii 305.5 ; but:in Scip Emelendaegl.Emilianus Scipio
Sg. 31a2 .in Caesar Octauiendagl.Octauianus Caesar,
31a3 .in Fiac sin, Thes. ii 307.3 .co tech in Dubthaig sin,
ib. 9 . Exceptionally:Nabál sin slebi Carmil, SR 6307.
In Mid. Ir. it is somet. used with anaphoric force:a n-Inis
25meic Uchen robai in Gartnan, Anecd. i 1.3 .in Cathal,
Aisl. MC 41.28 .iman Mormael, Ériu xii 190 § 23. do
marbsad in tEochaid andsin, ZCP viii 274.13 .ba rí hi
Temair in Fīachu Sraptine amal adrubrumar, 317.16 .
(b) place-names:i Corint, Wb. 14b5 .i nEgipt, Ml.
30 88a12 .téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 .co nōgaib Hérenn,
306.1 ; but:ind Róm fil hí Constantinopoil ... inna Rómae,
Sg. 174a1 . In Mid. Ir. the article became more common
particularly before a noun in the genitive, but the omission
of the article was still much more frequent than its use:
35 ind Eriu, LU 4042. íar sligi na Temrach, BDD² 131. do
Themraig, 149 .fonaidm ṅgíall Temrach, 164 .sethnu na
Hérind, 608 .i tír Hérend, 690 .i nOenuch na Crúachna,
LU 2888. hi cathair Cruachna, 2886 .isin Taltin, 2894 .
hi Taltin, 2896 . In Mod. Ir. some geographical names
40regularly take the article,e.g. an Fhrainnc, an Spáinn.
Others sometimes take the article, but in the gen. only:
Éire, i nÉirinn, tír na hÉireann. Alba, muinntear na
hAlban; butcf. lucht cuarta Éireann, Dáil Éireann(Din-
neen,s.v. Éire).
45(c) names of peoples and patronymics:arindí atrebat
Romáin and, Sg. 33a11 .atrebat Laitnóri and, 14 .di Ro-
manaib, 33a10 .Romoldai, 31b4 .la Ebreu, Ml. 26c1 .
di Iudéib, Wb. 27d4 .fri Saxanu, Críth Gabl. 523. la hUltu,
BDD² 977. do ríg Rómán, LU 6389 ; but:ind Romain,
50 Sg. 31b5 .int Ṡabindai, 28a10 .forsna Egiptacdu, Ml.
96c11 .do choscc inna nIsrahélde, Wb. 5a16 .na nDéisi,
Thes. ii 297.5 .in Galióin, LU 4656. co tríchait chét na
nGalión, 4648 . The absence of the article would seem
to be the earlier usage,cf. la Féniu(a phrase common
55throughout the law-tracts), Críth Gabl. 125. chórus Féne,
588 .
(d) nouns that refer to things of which there is one only,
or one outstanding example (these nouns approach in
meaning to proper names):is samlid dano gniith demun,
60 Wb. 21b2 .amal indocbáil dáe, 21a10 .as tualang deacht
todiusgud Crist`the Godhead,' 13c15 .i tempul, 26a8 .
hi fudumnaib talman, Ml. 40d16 .di chosecrad tabernacuil,
48b11 .gein maicc hua athair`the birth of the Son from the
Father
,' 85b11 .conapad firdía mac`that the Son should not
65be true God
,' 21c12 .amal as toisegiu grián indáas laithe,
85b11 .o hescgu co grein, SR 113. o thosuch domuin,
517 .dochuaid diliu don domon, 2592 .co lluid trít co
talmain, LU 5767. do diabul, PH 4889. nī dlig sāire ...
i tūaith nā i n-eclais amongst the laity or in the church, Ériu
70 i 218 § 2. roaithbeōaig Cairbri ō marbaib from the dead,
Arch. iii 225.v .Siuir agus Máigh ag gréin dá ngeimh-
liughadh, DDána 109 § 11. for fairgi, Corm. Y 1059.14 .
fri tīr, ib. 15 .slánaigh le hóigh t'oileamhain`make good
to the Virgin her nursing of Thee
,' Aithd. D. 67 § 26.
75Here belong the names of parts of the body:ho giun
et ... hi cridiu, Wb. 5d14 .ind foisitiu i ngiun`the confession
in the mouth
,' 4d33 .a n-asberid hó bélib, 7d10 .a lleth o
laim deiss`the half from the right hand,' Sg. 17b2 .risiu
rocloammar in fogur hua chluasaib with the ears, Ml. 112b12 .
80 anuas co imlind, LU 5780 ; butcf. intan citambí ind lám
in terochraic, Ml. 36b1 .in genogl.oris, 82c5 .
(e) a noun occurring in apposition to a proper name as
a sobriquet:for Lomnae Drúth, BDD² 705. Suibne
Geilt, Thes. ii 294.10 .for Tamun drúth, LU 6670.
85 Cauland cerdd, 4975 .aided Redg cáinte, 5803 .
(f) the names of abstract ideas, virtues, vices,etc.;
nachin rogba úall`that pride may not seize us,' Wb. 15d40 .
is asse dúib maid do denum, 4a4 .inne maith ł uilcc, Sg.
39a32 .nephdenum neich di ulc fri nech dogní olc frit,
Ml. 23c20 .dechair eter olcc is maith, SR 1255. erig, ...
5córu achāch duit mormenma, TBC 3978. ni rabi a samail
... ar maisse ┐ míne ┐ mórdacht, TTr. 621. ní fhuil nert
agud gun techt lium, ZCP vi 48.12 .na ndenad (leg.
denad) uaill na diumus, PH 4255. Exx. with the article are:
ind huallgl.arrogantia, Ml. 51a11 . gl.elatio, 28a1 .frisin
10noibi ┐ in glaini, 98d2 .ised a nnert foirbthe imgabail cech
huilc this is perfect virtue, 35d14 .immeradi a n-olc, 33d2 .
a mundit[i]a.i. ōn gloine, Corm. Y 900. attach inísel ...
tairnid in díumus`superbiam excludit,' PH 8035. sanntaiged
in rig ... in fírinde, 4254 .ro coimnertaigiss an coir`thou
15hast strengthened justice
,' St. Ercuil 429.
(g) a subst. followed by a definite genitive. (The article
is used when the gen. is attributive rather than defining,
e.g. á cenele ndoine, Wb. 5c16 .a llaa mbrithemnacte sin,
6b26 .forsa cenélae metir sin, Sg. 8a13 .in Briccriu Conaill
20Chernaig(name of a shield), BDD² 977. in Brug mna
Elcmair, Ériu viii 175.9 .an Iodh Morainn, Keat. ii 3659.
as an gCraoibh Dheirg Chonchubhair, ib. 3086 ).
The gen. is a proper name:ar iriss Crist, Wb. 25a10 .
di doiri Babelon, Ml. 46b26 .ó Thuind Clidnai, BDD² 1087.
25 la firu Hérenn, 123 ; or approaches in meaning to a proper
name:precept soscéli, Wb. 1b10 . Exceptions are rare:
in tṡlóig Herend, LU 4609. gol mo matharsa so ┐ na mban
mBoine, TBFr. App. § 20 (=... ┐ bantrochta Boínni, text).
The gen. is preceded by thedef. art.:ar meinci inna
30indithme, Ml. 85d1 .ardlathi in betho, Wb. 1a3 .dar cenn
ind Iudidi, 2a4 .tri hiris in cháich, 2b11 .fri bás inna clóen,
Thes. ii 320.1 .for lorg in tslóig, LU 4782. lucht in baile,
PH 49. In O. Ir. there are a great many exceptions to this
rule but in Mid. Ir., comparatively few, and fewer still in
35Early Mod. Ir.:inna ndánae in spirito, Wb. 21c2 .in pian
inna diglae, Ml. 28c19 .din chamull in diumsa, Tur. 60. in
dluthe ind flechuid, Ml. 81c8 .in dán inna litredachte, Sg.
33a28 .an fír-thsochraidecht an bethadh suthain, Irish Lit.
26.18 .leth in orba in athar, Laws iv 46.24 Comm. in prīm-
40cathraig mōrglain ... in dúnaid, Aisl. MC 87.27 .an dara
cuing an catha, Ir. Texts ii 9 § 24. issind aurlaind in dúine,
TBFr. 60. isin sinagoig moir na nEbraide, PH 48. na cuic
cuicidh na hEirenn, ZCP xi 43 § 31. oc saigid na cána in
domnaig, Ériu ii 208.15 .in mér medhon na láime clí, O'Gr.
45Cat. 270.29. in fer na tocla, TTebe 1601 .ingen in rig na
nEberda, 4645 . In PH there are two cases where this rule
does not apply (a) when the governing noun has a demon-
strative suffix ¤ saor ¤ sin, (b) when it is defined by an
ordinal. Exx. (a)na scéla-sin in aingil, PH 2975. in rath-sa
50na n-ilberla, 5484 .cf.O. Ir.:don dlúim máir sin inna pec-
thach, Wb. 9d5 .in gnim sin in tengad, Ml. 31b24 . (b)in
cetna mís na bliadna, PH 3516. isin tress uair ina óidche,
1490 . In TTebe,s.v. in , Calder notes that while a few
instances of the double use of the article occur this is
55especially the case when the governed noun is followed by
sin. The use of the double article when the governing noun
is defined by an ordinal though very common is not in-
variable:cosin tres mac imlesan na hoensúla, BDD² 641.
in treas rann sesgat ind uile, Laws ii 370.21 - 22 Comm. an
60tres gaisgedach na Tiabanda, TTebe 4879 ; butcf.:dorumalt
Moisi ... | ann tresraind a aimsire, SR 3784. tres ṅdírime
na tána, TBC 2656. i tres boin in brugad, Laws v 402.7
Comm.
The gen. is preceded by a possessive adj.:di foirb-
65thetu for nirisse, Wb. 1a9 .lóg a pecthe, 1c3 .do thudidin
do menman, 1c15 .do ind a oenláime, TBC 676. lín a
teglaich, TBFr. 8. Exception:lasin flaith far mbretha
ifos, SR 1215.
The gen. is defined bycech(Mid. Ir.cach),nach:
70 du thuistin cech dulo, Ml. 85b16 .imfolang nach gnima,
80d2 .tri thesbaid naich baill, Sg. 5a5 .fo cosmailis nacha
cat[h]rach, Hib. Min. 219. céol cach ḟir, LL 207a18 .cend
cech ḟir díb, TBC 682. i tossuch cach dúnaid, 571 .
The gen. is defined by a further definite genitive:ó
75soilsi deachte Crist, Wb. 26a17 .irchre fla[tho] Román,
26a5 .co maithib fer nÉrenn, BDD² 1441. An exception
is:dar fíartharsna in dunaid fer nÉrend, LU 6291.
CThe article is optional before an ordinal adjective:
isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 .cetnae accuis inso`this is the
80first cause
,' Ml. 118d12 .co nómád n-aó`to the ninth genera-
tion
,' Críth Gabl. 327. cetna gnim gnisset, SR 4197. ceth-
ramad gnim, 4209 . (The omissions in SR are necessitated
by the metre).Cf. in chethramad accuis, Ml. 118d18 .
ón chétna duini, SR 7889. in tres gnim, 4205 .Cf. ll. 83 ff.
85col. 183 above.
DAs a rule substantives defined by a relative sentence
take the art. unless they are preceded byis é,conid é,is
inunn,etc.(However, before words likeairm,baileused
adverbially the article is omitted:ría ríg Hérenn airm hi
foí, BDD² 488. co ránic na díberga baili i rabatar, 647 .
5 tancattar na hingena airm a mbói Hiruath, PH 905.
bail hita a athair, 1380 ):dund óis nad chaithi cach
tuari, Wb. 6c11 .a forcell doberam, 25d21 .isind huiliu
labramar-ni, Ml. 31b23 (exceptionally:ra mbía ... carpat
bas dech bess i n-Aii, LU 5587 ); but:is hé cruth inso
10áem no-s-messammar, Wb. 9c10 .is inunn chiall isindi as
scit┐ asnōuit , Ml. 114b1 .issí inne fil hi cechtar de,
114b1 .is he titul fil i ndreich ..., Hib. Min. 1. is é óen-
charpat insin nad foglentais dirmand na hecrada, LU
10177 - 8 .is tú láech as dech fil i nHerind, 5768 .is ed gen
15n-imarbága fil la firu Hérind, BDD² 1135. is é céadchrann
tarla dhó, soileach, Keat. ii 2687. is é áit ar ghabhadar
tír, i gCúan an Bhainbh, iii 5055 .is e recht ro buí isin
Libia in n-inbuidh sin, St. Ercuil 1101. When the ante-
cedent of the relative sentence is qualified by an ordinal the
20article sometimes occurs:fá hé Colum ... an céadduine
do thógaibh mainistear i n-oiléan Í, Keat. iii 1344. ionnus
gurab é an treas fear do chreid ..., ii 5372 .conidh e sin an
cedcath do cuir Ercuil, St. Ercuil 966 ; but:gurab é C.C.
céaddoctúir do chuaidh, Keat. iii 1347. is si sin cedmainistir
25caillech ndub ro buí isin Teib, St. Ercuil 890.

2 in interrogativeparticle.im-before b-forms of the copula
and substantive vb. (but: inbiam, Wb. 15a1 . inba maten,
inba fuin, Irish Metrics § 19. inbudh geall re oirechus ...,
ML² 1420 ). Causes eclipsis of following initial except when
30it contains the copula. n generally doubled before vowels
(but not in Wb.), especially before pronounsé,í,ed: Folld.
by dependent form of vb. and neg. particle and by Class C
forms of infixed pron. Later Mid. and Mod. Ir.:an.
(i) In direct questions:in coscramni`do we destroy?,'
35 Wb. 2b20 .in digén bullu mertrige diib, 9d4 .in cumgubsa
.i. nongl.num ... potero, Ml. 49c5 .in intsamlammar-ni
`do we imitate,' Wb. 11b16 .in intain rombói in circum-
cisione, 2c5 .in anfossigid, 8d5 .in ed fodera báas domsa
..., 3c33 .in dia in doichside do`is it God? is it likely of
40Him
?,' 4b14 . uidesne.i. in n-aci, Sg. 15b6 .in n-íírr`wilt
Thou slay
?,' Ml. 77a10 .inned insin furuar dait`is it that
that caused it to thee
?,' 44b10 .in forcmaither áes sain-
rethach dond ḟi[u]r midboth ...?, Críth Gabl. 32. ind
(leg.in) hí lanamnus atái béus`art thou still in the married
45state
?,' Mon. Tall. 134.24 .inn é so Muinremor?, Sc.MMD
§ 12. ceist, in n-éláfa limm?, TBFr. 162. im bui (bia,
v.l.) tesorcud na nDéisi innosa?, Ériu iii 140.179 .in creti
Dia fodechtsa, LU 9281. inn ébairt-sium frit-su in chóma
sain, TBC 1772. in anad dogníthi-si?, Mer. Uil. 187. an
50edh is áil lib ... imbualad oidhchi do dēnam?, ML² 1501.
an faicend tu Tit, TTebe 4886 .in ro berbais in saill, IT
i 41.12 .
(ii) In dependent questions in is used (a) alone meaning
whether , or (b) preceded byduús(do ḟius) to know if,if
55perchance: (a)nebmess for nech im maid fa olcc`whether
he be good or evil
,' Wb. 8d26 .asrubart sum fri mmaccu
Israhel imbói di oinachdaib leu, Ml. 43d1 .ro ḟíarfuigh
sceula dib, an fúaratar sgéulu Midir, IT i 129.30 .co finnad
inn uaitsiu ro siacht fis dó, LU 3659. dóig innar tised Cúsc-
60raid, TBC 823. a innisin duind ... an mberam coscur
dona Tiabandaib, TTebe 1214 .aitheantar ... an é flaitheas
Dé is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1776. ní feas do neoch an díol
grádha nó fuatha é féin, 1155 . (b)duús in comalnid arru-
pridchad dúib`if perchance ye fulfil what has been preached
65to you
,' Wb. 14d23 .doairfenus doib dús imbed comrorcon
and`if perchance there might be error therein,' 18d7 .iar-
moracht M. do M. dus imbad lór whether it were enough,
Mon. Tall. 133.8 .dús in faigbitis nech bad toga leo dia
tibertis rígi nErend, LU 3438. With loss of n:rochindset
70dul co Teamhraigh dūs a ccaomtais fuaslugudh Fiachra
to see if they could..., ZCP xiv 256.17 . In Mod. Ir.an ro>
arby the assimilation of n with r:do fhiafruigh dhe ar
choimhéid na miasa gan osgladh, TSh. 3592.
(iii) Double interrogation expressed by in...in , more
75frequently by in... fa(orba), in... fain , and later by in
... noin...(im,imb,imp=in+3 s. pres. subj.of copula):
imb i nógi imb i lánamnas`whether in celibacy or in marriage,'
Wb. 10a12 .imbem i mbethu imbem i mbaás bad lessom,
25c12 .sechip hé im do día im do pheccad, 3b15 .ceist in
80tre prois fa in tre metur roceta ..., Hib. Min 175. cid dogēn
fri firu Arddae? imba hāilgine ... bá 'ma (=imba) garge?,
Arch. iii 293.z .imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa, Wb. 23b41 .
is inderb im mascul fá femen ..., Sg. 61a9 .imba bás ba
bethu`whether it will be death or life,' Wb. 23b32 .cía de
85as sru[i]thiu, in ríi fa thúath?, Críth Gabl. 492. is cum-
tabairt cia crocann in rúon nó in cethra, Trip.² 815. in oc
urnaidi Con Culaind bía ł in limsa doraga, LU 4012. dus
cid dodentais fri h-Iacop .i. inn e a marbad ... no inn e a
phiannad, LB 151b40 .in sith no in debaid fuil agaib?
Aen. 1838. 'ca imradh an cath rocomorfad no an sid ro-
5sirfead, TTebe 1184 . Triple interrogation:in i comsuidigud
fa hi comasndís bíit fa a ndíis`whether they are in com-
position or in apposition or in both of them
,' Sg. 217a1 .in
... fa nacc whether...or not: in tree áem didiu fa nacc
`is it through it then indeed or not?,' Wb. 2c4 .imb anacol
10dom fa nac`whether it be protection to me or no,' 23a6 .
(iv) Negative interrog.:innád cualaidsi`have ye not
heard
?,' Wb. 5a21 .inná tecta cumachtegl.an non habet
potestatem?, 4c28 .innad n-accai dost thou not see?, Ml.
17b17 .dús innad n-utmaligetar, Thes. ii 4.34 (Acr.).cest
15ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe`did not G. exist... ?,'
Auraic. 13. In Ml. the neg. interrog. is frequently expressed
byin ní nad is it that ... not: inní nad ṅdixnigedar is it a
thing that it is not
?, Ml. 55c9 .inní nadnimcai ate immaaccai
is it a thing He does not consider? Yea, He considers it,
20 114a15 .inní nad roilgisid`have ye not read?,' 17b18 .inné
nach foghnann duit duine ele, BNnÉ 179.4 .
(v) The object pronoun (indirect object in the case of
sul st. verb and copula) is infixed between in and the verb,
and in the case of the copula, between in and the
25predicate:in da hierr`wilt Thou slay them?,' Ml. 77a16 .
inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin?, IT i 144.19 .inn dath-
gnitae would you recognise them?, 21 .inum-biasa úair
coibligi lat?, BDD² 48. innut tarfás ní? has anything
appeared to thee
?, LU 9233. indad fil slondud bas derbu?,
30 5602 .indat mebhair-siu?, TBC 3552. in dóig inar tísed
C., 815 .in-dat sochenel no dochenel?, PH 695.