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H, eighth letter of the Irish alphabet and first letter of the
second or h group in the Ogam alphabet, Auraic. 1138, 4229 ,
IGT Introd. § 4 , consonant with masc. gender but not a letter
(gion gur litear é), § 17 ( Auraic. 3559 . See Lewis and Short,
5A Latin dictionary s.v. h ). Cf. Graim. 2899 - 02 . Ogam 3 úath
white-thorn . See Meroney, Speculum xxiv 28 (thorn-like
shape of corresponding Ogam letter, infl. of h-like abbrev.
for Latin autem). Not in earlier ogam inscriptions in Irish,
Macalister, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum i , v ,
10 Thurn. Gramm. 10 . Cf. Menueh, Thes. ii 288.35 and note.
Indicates length in prec. vowel in Ternohc (= Ternóc),
289.18 .
In O. Ir. initial (and rarely medial) h is without phonetic
value, Thurn. Gramm. 19 . In some wds. h- perh. from *y or
15*p, Ped. i 410 (see Thurn. Gramm. 140 ). In humaldoit, Wb.
6d5, 8d26 (beside umaldóit, 13a17 ) (Lat. humilitat- U 81.68)
h- may be treated as mute, Thurn. Gramm. 20 ; in arch.
menmnihi, Wb. 18a21 (a prima manu), represents -ch-, ib.
On intervocalic -h- in Mid. Ir. (ahé, LU 7008 ) see BDD²
20 595 n. ; in ahel (A 87.31) perh. a mark of hiatus. In ahæ (A 87.28)
interj. gl. hem, Ml. 131c3 , -h- not merely graphic. Cf. ahé
above and article below.
Somet. for th. Note Clohnai = Clothnai, Ann. Inisf. 1176.2
(see Facsimile, Introd. 16 ).
25In later spelling prefixed to initial stressed vowels after
(i) g s f., n a p. f. and n. of def. article, see I 184.79-81, 185.19,
20, 21, 24, 37. After cacha, cecha ( Thurn. Gramm. 151 ), g s f.
of cach, cech, later also after cacha, cecha with masc., C 2.65,
75, 3.4. In later Ir. before initial vowel of a noun with pl.
30form difft. from the sg. after trí, sé, cheithre, cheathra
(cethair), IGT Decl. Introd. 8 § 18. See Thurn. Gramm.
151, 153 . After día, dé as gen. of time in dia haoine dídine
and other exx. See 3 día and 1 díden, Thurn. Gramm. 151 .
(ii) After (proclitic) na n a s. n. of 1 nach, Thurn. Gramm.
35 151, 309 : ní epur na haill, Thes. ii , xxii.14 ( Sg. 217 marg. inf. ).
(iii) After nom. of io-stems as proclitics, Thurn. Gramm.
151 . S. ua hImair, AU i 440.7 . After in dara (earlier indala),
Thurn. Gramm. 151 . See I 214.65, 69. After 1 cía Thurn.
Gramm. 292 .
40(iv) After a poss. adj. 3 s f. See Ériu xxiii 101 on retention
of h following a her: a hétach, Fraech 210 . See 2 a.
(v) After forms of the copula, Thurn. Gramm. 152 , TD
Introd. lxxvii f. , Stories fr. Keating xxiii : pret. 3 s. ba, fa,
I 318.21, (exx.) 273.36, 262.15; pres. indic. neg. 3 s. ní,
45 I 305.69, 72-3, 81-2 (exx.) 85, ni hinann, O'C. 78 ( H. 3.18,
61a ); fut. 3 s. (abs.) budh hiomdha, DDána 29.29 .
(vi) After prepp., Thurn. Gramm. 152 , see A 6.45, C 271.78,
273.43, F 413.62, L 4.79, 5.1, 20, 6.84, 7.76.
(vii) Before verbal forms, Thurn. Gramm. 152 . After
50particles ro (do), neg. ní, shown before passive forms in mid.
and mod. Ir.: ro hathchummad (pret. pass.), LU 7995 . ro
hainced, TBC 4510 , do hairmhedh, Caithr. CC § 60 (36.13) .
ra hachnít, TBC 76 . ní hantoir (pres. indic. pass.), Sitzb.
v (1919) 93 § 29 . ni hairemthar (fut. (?) pass.), RC xviii
55173.12 (Tig.). ní himmertha (condit. pass. sg.?), TBC 2874
After mani: muna hairgithur, Laws ii 2.23 Comm. Exx. cited
N 42.59 of written h- prefixed to active verbs after neg.
partic. ní in SR are not decisive. Note -hinneosfam (fut. 1 p.)
Keat. ii 6370 .
60After 2 ná, neg. particle in rel. clause: in tí na haittrebann
(pres. indic. 3 s.), PH 2074 .na rig . . . herlathrighit, 4226 .
After 3 ná (ar ná etc.) (subord. conj. introd. neg. clause),
Thurn. Gramm 152 . in tan na hantai (indic. pres. 2 s.),
LU 9003 . conna hanat (subj. pres. 3 p.), LL 13359 . arnā
65hēilnet, Corm. Y 1082 . After 1 ná (adv. of negation) followed
by impv. (and subj.); na hadair, PH 7310 . na himighed i
sdaighri, Rosa Ang. 242.17 .
(viii) After 4 ná, Thurn. Gramm. 153 , perh. phonetic in
grāin nā hirḟūath, Arch. iii 5.8 . na haimbil, Laws ii 46.1 .
70(ix) After particle a before some numerals with vocalic
initial where no noun follows, see 3 a, Sc. G. Stud. v 42 f. ,
Thurn. Gramm. 153 .
No doubt also after assa with compar., see Thurn. Gramm.
153 , but no exx. available.

75 h' = th' form of poss. adj. 2 s. before vowels and ḟ before a
vowel. See 1 t, 2 do: ní h'opair chóir dombiurt-sa fort-su
`it was not a labour befitting you, etc. ', Táin 1236 (= ní
hopair, LL 8783 ). nip sí th'opar comadas, LU 5261 = ní hí
h'obair, TBC St. 1274 (see O'Rahilly, Hermathena xx 192
80 etc. on change of th- to phonetic h-). ar h'ionchaibh, ZCP xii
379.24 . aiseag h'anma (= animam tuam), TSh. 539 . See
hám with h- for th-.