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A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U


e the fourth vowel of the ogam alphabet, in Irish
called edad, Auraic. 1195 . 4298 . eadha, O'Molloy's
Gramm. p. 6 . In later Mid. Irish usually ei before
a slender consonant ; in O.Ir. this is only regular
5in monosyllabic words, e.g. deich ten, beir brings. In
archaic Ir. e is still preserved in unstressed syllables where
the later lang. has a or o, or a neutral vowel : ine laim
Cam. 37d ( = inna láim), are n-airema that he receive 37c
( = ara n-a.). inæ dommetu 38a ( = inna dommatu). e
10fethol `his badge' Tur. 87 . esin lindsen ( = assin or issin)
Southampt. Cod., Thes i 4.25 . In the glosses ē is often
expressed by æ, ǽ, e.g. dæ, dǽ = Dé Wb , Ml pass. ;
haecosc = éccosc Wb 27d17 ; æ for ĕ is rarer : æclis Wb
28d24 ; cf. 22c20 . In archaic documents we find e, é
15and ee representing the sound which in Old and Mid. Ir.
is written ia : Feec = Fíacc, Arm. 4b2 . Neel = Níall
10a2 . Cerrigi = Cíarraigi 13a1 . Fechrach = Fiachrach,
10b1 . feda = fíada, Cambr. 37b . pén = pían, Wb 15a16 .
Also ea = later ía : Druim Leas ( = D. Lías) Arm. 15a1 .
20In later Mid. Ir. it became a common practice to express
e (ē) before a broad consonant by ea (éa) ; some schools
preferred to express ē in this position by é or e ; e.g. fear
man but fér or fer grass. In vellums of a certain class,
where accents are regularly omitted, this rule may have
25been adopted to prevent confusion, see IGT, Introd. § 11 .
O.Ir. exx. of ea for e are conrusleachta Ml 53d11 and
coineas 102a23 .

1 é, pron. 3 s. m. ; fem. , q.v. (later also í) ; neut.
ed, q.v. For pl. see 2 é.
30In Glosses with copula : ishé Wb 4c3 . 25b2 . Sg 3b20 .
is hé Ml 36a32 . is hǽ 102b5 . isé Bcr 18b12 . mad
hǽ Wb 27b6 . ba hé Ml 24a4 . Wb 19c4 . asné 4d16 .
Ml 31b24 . Mark of length sometimes omitted, as : ishe
Wb 25a24 . Ml 45b11 .
35In early Mid. Ir. with copula 3 s. pr. issé, isé ; inde-
pendently é, hé ; in later MSS regularly é. Before -som,
etc. hésom Wb 7c8 . 24d5 . hesom Ml 53a5 . 90b13 .
hǽsium Ml 30c5 . ésium TBC 1744 . 6050 . esium 1107 .
1189 . LL 223b14 . eisium, Acall. 1979 . esiomh TBC
40 3883 St. eisim TBC² 2444 . BColm. 60.6 . esim 104 .
12 . éseom TBC 5971. eseom LU 12a36 . 126a29 .
TBC² 559 . 580 . eiseom 1222 . 1543 . TTr.² 1451 . esen
Corm. Y 276 . CCath. 2615 . ésen TBC 2893. eisen
O'Gr. Cat. 488 ( : seisen). eisean, Dán Dé xxv 53 ( : móir-
45sheisear). TSh. 5134 . eision TBC 3883 v.l. TD 34. l. 189 .
In early Mid. Ir. freq. with -ss- : essium PH 281. Aisl.
MC 55.11 . eissium, Acall. 6017.6708 . 7890 . eissiumh
Met. Dinds. iv 282y . esseom, Trip. 394.4 . IT i 131.12 .
essem Eriu i 126.12 . ZCP ix 156 ( = TBC² 1543 ). essim
ZCP iii 258 ( = LU 126a29 ). eissim, Acall. 2080.3353 .
eissin 7642 . Cf. hisseom PH 1513 . Before -side, -séin,
5 etc. : heside Wb 3c15 . Ml 100c10 . 102a20 . he side
Ml 100b23 . éside LL 219a34 . eside TBC 2230 . PH
929 , etc. éisidhe Lism. L. 3429 . eisidhe 424 . eiside
Laws iv 138z Comm. . TTr.² 373 . esede TBC 4502.
eisidhi, Laws i 8.6 . esiden YBL 62a27 . esidein BColm.
10 52.18 . eisidhein ZCP viii 551 y ( = TBC 1874 ). esein PH
1963 . éisein, Acall. 1463 . eiséin, Studies 1924, 242 § 7 .
eisideic, Laws i 4.25 . eiseic iv 46.14 Comm. v 448.30
Comm. Acall. 5944 . esec, Laws iv 16.17 Comm. With
-ss- : esside LU 22a38 . ZCP viii 302.23 . Auraic. 207 .
15 Aisl. MC 3.11 . hessidhi Lism. L. 3888 . eisside, Corm.
Y 276 . eissidi, Do Chupur 56 ( IT iii 237 ). eissideic, Acall.
4833 . eisseic 6034 . eissein 5819 . 7982 .
In early Mid. Ir. we sometimes find es(s)ide standing
for a fem. subst. : oc siair tharisi do .i. fedb craibdech eside
20 PH 943 ; cf. Laws iv 176.24 ( 178.4 ) ; 226.7 .
The O.Ir. quantity of 1 é before the suffix is attested
by the rime glēsom : hēsom, IT iii 44 § 60 . Thurneysen
remarks ( Hdb. § 447 ) that the length of the vowel in
ésom may be due to the influence of 2 é which, to judge
25from Welsh wy, is long by nature. In late Mid.-Ir. how-
ever the vowel is regularly short before the strengthening
or anaphoric suffixes. The shortening may be explained
by the analogy of messe, tussu.
A detailed examination of the use of the independent
30pron. in Old and Mid. Ir. belongs to syntax and would be
out of place here ; we give however some illustrations of
the typical uses for these periods. Some special uses are
noticed in IX.
I Placed immediately after the copula, in the following
35types of sentences :
(a) bad he for n-ere (gl. portate dominum) Wb 9d12 .
is heside athir inna mmachabdae (gl. Mathathiae) Ml 74b6 .
ishé a ammus lemm that is my guess at it (gl. cum iam fere
centum annorum esset) Wb 2c27 . ba ed á n-oínbiad (gl.
40 mannae) Ml 97d8 . Símon Bar-ióne...is e eochair na
flatha némdai PH 1639 . tucus aichne fairsim corb'é Ísu I
knew that He was Jesus
3736 . ní hé Cormac beus TBC²
13 . In Mid. Ir. the pron. is often repeated after the subj.
in sentences of this type : (a1) is é gaiscedach as dech fil
45díb hé LU 101a39 = FB 14 (hé om. ZCP iv 153 ). issé
mo lennán é TBC 4560 . corb' e metrapolitan na prim-
chathrach he PH 189 . as é céd-duine tárla dó hé, Acall.
624 . fa hé céidrí Éireann do ṡíol Éibhir é, Keat. ii 1875 .
When the second pron. stands for a subst. of different
gender from that of the pred. we get the type : is tocrádh
mór marbhnadh Dé | ní hé an brón gan adhbhur í, Dán
5Dé xxvi 1 . dob é ceirtleath m'anma í, Studies 1924,
428 § 9 .
(b) is hésom doradchiúir (gl. Christo Jesu) Wb 2b9 . is
heside dorárricc báas dúnni 3c15 . is heside robu rí Ml
100c10 . Mac Roth...is e timchellas hErind ind oenló
10 TBC² 1110 .
(c) is he Dia insin (Quis est iste Deus...? Deus sc. ille
qui...) Ml 83c5 . rii benn ced ara neper? Is he rí tuathi
insin lasmbiat .vii. ngraid ḟene, Laws iv 328.24 . is hé rí
insin loingside siabrai LU 99a27 .
15(d) ba he a ngnimsom molad Dǽ (quorum...officium)
Ml 24a4 . is sí ind inducbal lesom in molad 126b17 .
corrophed mo indeb Crist (gl. ut Christum lucrifaciam)
Wb 24a6 . is e in cetna herdach celebrad ┐ procept brethri
Dé PH 3600 . dob í m'ḟáilte mo riar, Keat. iii 1450 . issé
20biadh do buí ag M. uidhe cerc ┐ aran BCC § 122 . Keat.
ii 2687 .
(e) is hé rufiastar cumachtae inna diglae...in tí, etc. Ml
111c13 . is ed as dulem daitsiu m'etarcnae 103a9 . is é
as fhoghar dá gach eon | moladh Dé, Dán Dé xiv 23 .
25 Cf. is e thainic a n-agaid Patraic .i. Sínell, Lism. L. 248 .
(f) asné Crist in lie asrubart Wb 4d16 . issi so a
chiall Ml 65a3 . is e cētlá na sechtmaine in domnach
PH 3584 . int shollsi-so...is e Crist mac Dé sin 3792 .
badh í an úaisle ar n-eólaichne, Eriu ix 163 § 6 . gurbh í
30Éire tobar draoidheachta iarthair Eorpa, Keat. ii 963 . The
pron. is regularly in concord with the follg. subst., but cf. is
í ar gceann báidheine an bhean, Dán Dé ii 29 .
(g) When the pred. precedes the cop., the word follow-
ing the pron. usually decides the gender of the latter : in
35choss is hé oís achtáil Wb 12a23 . Crist didiu issí in
chathir 21c5 . cf. i dteangthaibh nach í an Scoitic in
languages other than Scottic
Content. vi 19 . Cf. on the
other hand Wb 3b16 , 18 . PH 1639
(h) is hé Dia as eola indiumsa Wb 8d23 . ní hé apstal
40citarogab in testiminso Ml 38c3 . comad he Nathi bud
choscrach RC xxiv 180 . ba saeth le M. nach he Brian
ba ri 176 . ce nib ed á ainmsom bes foir Ml 23d17 . (In
O.Ir. the pron. is not obligatory in this type ; cf. issí ind
ainim as airlam...ní incorpp Wb 3d11 . ni far mbrónsi
45immafolngi fáilti domsa 16b8 . is a indocbál fessin con-
dieig cách 23d5 . ni Dia dudgní... Ml 44d21 .) is é mo
chorp ro ádnaicis[s]i PH 3732 . is é an beo do bhí 'na
chroich | doní idir eo agus éanlaith, Dán Dé vi 40 . gurbh í
an Ghaedhealg fá teanga dona draoithibh, Keat. ii 964 .
50(i) The copula may be omitted : he fessin as choimsid
dáu, Thes ii 294.3 . hé cotnarlaic...doib anisin SR 3659 .
é leth luidi, Met. Dinds. ii 2 . é domrad a n-éccomhnart,
Buile S. 48.16 .
II (a) After interrogatives : cia hé (gl. quis) Ml 46c17 .
55 cia hé nundixnaigthersiu 75c9 . ce hé roscríb Sg
197a19 . cóich esein PH 1963 . cidh esen itir TBC 3843
St. cuich hé in t-airfidech ut ? Acall. 7525 . cret eissein in
t-abhacc ? 7982 .
(b) After sechi, sechip, cip (cib) : sechi he (gl. si quis)
60 Ml 35b4 . sechi é cretes de illis Wb 15b1 . sechi sí (gl.
quaelibet) Ml 65d2 . sechi sí dia rignaib 65d8 . sechip
hé nodapridcha whosoever he be that preaches it Wb 14d28 .
sechip hé dán tra doberthar do neuch 13a3 . ciphé ade
Ml 26a1 . ponat ergo lunam (cipé) ubilibet computare
65voluerit Bcr 31c2 . ciped ní PH 1520 . gib é dig...ni
ba missi TBC 1223 . cip é imress méla...fort 46 . So far
as can be judged from published material cip é (gib é) is
regularly replaced in late Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. by the
anomalous gi bé (gidh bé), in which bé is fully stressed
5and alliterates with b. This form occurs already in O.Ir. :
cia bé a mmet however big it be Ml 61b28 . cía bé (MSS.
cebe, gibe, cidbe, etc.) dlug bías duib, Met. Dinds. iii 42 .
gipe ra ṡossed (cía bé roisedh v.l.) TBC 6076 . atú ar
bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gi bé do bhronn a
10dhá rosg, Studies 1921, 258 § 9 .
It may be noted here that the position of the pron. in
copula (or virtually copula) sentences in Mid. and Early
Mod. Ir. is not always in accordance with orthodox
modern usage, e.g. Tadhg esiomh nó a aithgin he is T. or
15else his counterpart
O'Gr. Cat. 488 (= Ir. Monthly 1921, 291 ).
III With os(s), q.v. : os hǽ (gl. donorum amicus) Ml
69c4 . oshé 122b14 . oshe 123b4 . osse cona licc fora
thairr TBC² 891 . Similarly with is (s), s, ocus (┐) :
deidghin...ina cinn isse níamdo IT i 119.27 . a inar bláith
20...is é étrom TBC² 1871 . mar éan is é gan eitil, Dán Dé
vii 22 . in scáilfer...sé tailc IT i 271.11 . andara hech
dibsidi ocus se...luath-lemnech TBC² 2557 . ocus se
baccach PH 620 . ┐ se ina shessom 622 . áráit...si
imtromm IT i 271.36 .
25 IV Independently : hésom triuss Wb 7c8 . tría buith
adi innim ┐ hǽsium i talam because He is in heaven and he
on earth
Ml 30c5 ....nad cho[m] nech acht hesom fesin
53a5 . cen fis accu he buden ina Cristaige PH 56 . ni nech
aile...acht he buden ┐ Dia 607 . nachar mhair acht é féin
30amháin, Keat. ii 4179 . cunnradh eile atamaoidni do
dhenamh le hA., acus eisin linne, Ir. Deeds, Trans. RIA
xv 87.22 . In affirmation : Ferbaeth an e dothæt...
imbarach? Eiseom on TBC² 1543 = YBL 31a17 . After
indá, in(n)a, ná than ( = O.Ir. oldá(a)s, indá(a)s) : fearr
35neach ele iná hé féin | dá mholadh, Studies 1924, 242 .
do ba sine ioná é féin, Keat. ii 1828 . After cen, eter,
amlaid, mar, q.v.
Here also may be noticed the type : is móidi a subailchi
sin ┐ is laidirede congmus duine a n-agaid a namatt é its
40virtues are the greater (for) that and it aids a man more
powerfully against his enemies thereby
Maund 139 . do
benadh an t-iarann as an crand ┐ nir misde do bhi an
tseisrech ag trebad é the iron was removed and none the
worse was the team plowing
BCC § 76 ; in these passages
45the pronouns sin, é, are asyntactical. Cf. the exx. in Fasc. i
162-163
.
The usages classified under V-IX belong to the Mid. Ir.
period, and later. Strachan has shown that V-VII were
in use before the end of the eleventh century, and well
50established before the end of the twelfth ; see Ériu i 176 .
The form sé which arises in this period is treated s.v.
V As subject of the copula, following the pred. In
early Mid. Ir. we find numerous exx. in which side is
replaced by eside, som by esium, etc. (perhaps on the
55pattern of is éside x, is ésom x), as : in Fiac sin dano mac
eside meic E....(v.l. mac sede) Thes. ii 307.3 . Cf. the
O.Ir. types : is Diasom domsa Wb 1a2 . ni augtor side
uilc Ml 44d19 ; these seem parallel to : ba cosnamaid
Erenn esside an inbaid sin i n-agaid Cathail, Aisl. MC 3 - 5 .
60In early Mid. Ir. eside, esium, etc. usually follow the
pred. directly, while the copula is unexpressed : dalta
esseom do P., Trip. 394.4 . bai mac etorro... .i. Mael D.
mac A. esside LU 22a38 . Necódim...sái rechta eside
PH 3677 . dalta do C. beos essium 281 . Whether this
65type preceded and originated the use of the simple pron.
as subj. of the copula is uncertain; there are numerous early
exx. of (h) é etc. where the anaphoric pron. would be out
of place.
Nicodemus... .i. cara inclethi do Crist he PH 209 .
5 ní cubaid bás cosmail doib, uair Pól ennacc he, Petar
tra...écraibdech eside 1865 . With copula expressed:
combá mac dond ríg hé LU 22b29 . is la Coin Culaind...
hé 112a24 ( FB 89 ). ba hairchindech na n-apstal he PH
1637 . ba hōgshlān he 468 . ba cumang les he 64 .
10 VI As obj. of trans. vb., replacing the O.Ir. infixed
pron. (The transitional stage is illustrated in the tauto-
logical types: cotgair Lugaid amach hé TBC² 1063 . conna-
chrancatár hé LU 59a33 . roscuirset himmach he PH 110 ):
cona ragbad in galar hé LU 14b31 . rocharsat hé 121b35 .
15 rochrechtnaig eseom 126a28 . co cualutar hé PH 18 .
acall-su fessin é TBC 1652 . guid he beseech him PH 343 .
VII As subj. of pass. vb.: robaided hé LU 41a23 . cf.
rogabad hí 41a33 . is annam fogabar he cen chatha
RC xxiv 200 . meni frithalter innocht é TBC 1352 . nach
20acaltar é 1694 . rohindarbad asin cathraig he PH 949 .
VIII Occasionally as subj. of certain intrans. verbs:
mas re ré na fochraice táinic amuigh hé, Laws iv 134.13
Comm. noco bia itir hi 42.2 Comm. ar nach tisad friss
he LL 217b34 . ní raibe a n-aicned duinde eisseic, Acall.
25 6034 . ni roerchoidigestar do hí (sc. in lassar), Trip.
392.9 . Cf. as subj. of trans. verb: ni torracht Herinn
andsin í RC xii 78 . In such exx. the pron. is regularly
separated from the vb., cf. imridh sé éinbhearta is í IGT,
Decl. ex. 1113 ; but: ór ḟás eision TD 34. l. 189 .
30Here may be noted: ol eissidi IT iii 237.1 . bar
ésium (éseom) quoth he TBC 4568 . 5971 . 6050 . ar esium
1189 . bar eissium , Acall. 4615 . cf. ar si, ar sisi IT ii2
227.34 - 5 . See ol.
IX There are a few special uses of é in a neutral sense,
35without regard to gender of follg. subst. (cf. 1 ed):
(a) is e cuit in `acht' and the force of the `except' here
is
Laws iv 42.1 Comm. is e cuit in dono ann 136.24
Comm. badh é a chríoch...go mbrisfimni..., Ériu ix 164 §
14 . is é críoch a gcualabhair this is the gist TD 31.8 .
40 an é a reic is damhna dhí 22a42 . iss é sin ciall in sceil,
Acall. 3326 . is é áit..., Keat. iii 5055.5199 etc.
(b) in indef. predication, as: ní hé amháin not only
that
TD 9.11 ; 22.5 . O'Hussey, T.C. 34.9 ; 54.5 .
MacAingil 326 . an é nach faici-sí C.? do ye not see C?
45 BCC § 100 . an é nách easbol meisi ? an é nách fuilim saor ?
1 Cor. ix 2 .
(c) referring to a statement or fact, etc.: rucad in
Dond C....úadib...conid é sin méla ┐ mertain ┐ meraigecht
is mó tucad for C.C., TBC 2041 (conadh í sin mela is mó
50 v.l.). a Dhé ní d'anaibhse mh'olc | é nach faghaim-se
furtocht, Dán Dé vi 34 . re hinghin Anna is é adearar |
Dia an t-eitne agus ibh an chnú x 22 . as é adeirid...nach
treabhonn mé...iad, Studies 1923, 81 . is é chráidheas an
croidhe | mé ag áineas tar m'eólchoire, 1924, 88 . See
55Strachan, riu i 163 .
For é with neut. or fem. subst. in Mid.-Ir. see Strachan's
paper on Middle Ir. Declension, Phil. Soc. 1905 .