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2 cía conj.(a use of1 cía, Ped. ii 206 , Bergin, Ériu xii 206 . Not a use of1 cía, Greene, Ériu xxi 92 - 3 ) In
O. Ir. alsoce( Thurn. Gramm. 34 ). Before initial vowels
alsoci. Neg.cení,ceni,cini( Thurn. Gramm. 561 ).céa, Trip.²
80 444 .gia, SR 2885 .ga, LL 8354 (TBC). In later lang.gé
( Thurn. Gramm. 111 ).giodh re hucht n-innsgne ┐ molta
┐ bfocuil, ┐ gé re hucht n-oibrighthe, acht gurab cóir giodh
gonta no a leithéid eile, IGT Introd. 8.1 (forgiodhsee
infra). Ongé doin past tense in class. lang. see Duan. Finn
85Gloss.gér chreid, Dán Dé xx 38 .gé go ttainic, Duan. Finn
ii 368 § 26 . In later lang. often reinforced byacht:acht gé
tá, DDána 20.17 .acht ge bhadar, St. Ercuil 1471 . As a rule
unstressed,cf. TD 15.28 note. But the formgiodhis in list
of words which may rhyme, Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.27 , the sense
in available exx. beingeven(seeinfra):giodh: miodh, 39 =
5 DDána 84.18 . As a rule leniting, Thurn. Gramm. 561 . But
not in copula formsce-pu,cia-ptar. Isolated exx. with
gemination (no ref.), Thurn. Gramm. 145 . Not a conj. particle,
and takes absol. and deut. form of vb. in O. Ir. (though it
takes conj. form of pret. of copula, Thurn. Gramm. 491 ).
10 Cf.also:cethuc, Thes. ii 225.19 (PCr.).cé betis secht tengtha /
im gin, Fél. Ep. 125 . See Mulchrone, Celtica v 143 . Occasion-
ally folld. by rel. clause:ciararubartat biuth, Ml. 91b1
( Thurn. Gramm. 320 ).Cf. acht gé bhíos 'na bheathaidh,
TSh. 1222 .
15Somet. replaced as simple conj. bycid etc.(presum.cía+
subj. pres. 3 s.of copula, seeinfra):ced donecmai, Mon.
Tall. 146.19 .cid dognetheress usci, 143.18 .cid arfaomtar ní,
148.17 .cid fogluasa though . . . may, 152.1 .cid chodala a
lórtid, 161.27 .cid ro chloí, LL 521 .gidh atá, ML 56.11 .gidh
20atáid, RSClára 54a .acht gidh do bhí, Eochairsg. 31.3 .acht
cid bíd, Maund. 215 .
Forms with copula.Indic. pres. 2 s. ciaso, LL 344a32 =
ciarba, Tec. Corm. 12.7 .3 s.(leniting)ciasu, Wb. 11c17 .
12a5 . 19a20 . Ml. 26c4 . 26d12 . 67a4 . 67d24 .ciaso, Wb.
25 28c14 . Sg. 211b7 . ciaso, 204a8 .cesu, Wb. 21d13 . Sg. 38a1 .
41b10 . 59a6 . 78b2 . 90a5 . 91a3 . 137b2 . 158a2 . 217b12 .ceso,
21a1 . 206a3 . With neg. cinidlúithlib, Wb. 12b9 . cinid
airi, Sg. 35b13 . cinithmút, 5b4 .cenid, Ml. 42b7 . 44c26 .cenid,
Sg. 181b4 . 202a5 .2 pl. cenutad, Wb. 4a10 .cenotad, 33b8 .
30 cenuded, Thes. i 713.25 . (archaic, Thurn. Gramm. 485 ).3 pl.
cetothóisegu, Wb. 18d14 . cetuchummascthai, Sg. 62a2 .
cetoécintecha, 203b10 . ciatochomṡruithi, Críth Gabl. 493 .
Subj. pres. 1 s. ciabaderóil, Wb. 18a7 .2 s. ciabaloingthech,
Wb. 6c9 . ciafafirián, Ml. 36a32 .3 s. cid,cith,ced,ceith,
35 ceth passim(see below).cinip, Wb. 11d15 . cinip. . .cenip ,
Ml. 59a23 .cenib, 24d22 .3 pl. cit, Wb. 4d4 , 5 , 9a12 . 12a13 .
Sg. 207b11 .cinbat, Wb. 4d6 .Subj. impf. 3 s. ce bad hé
frisandénte, Wb. 9c24 . cenibedáainmsom bes foir, Ml.
23d17 .3 pl. citis,cetiscited Thurn. Gramm. 490 .Pret. 1 s.
40 ciabsa.i. ge do bhí mé, O'Cl. 3 s. cepu, Wb. 2c25 . 4c35 .
ciabu, Ml. 24c12 .cíabocited Thurn. Gramm. 491 .3 pl.
ciaptar, Ml. 98c5 .cebtar, Wb. 4a8 .céptar, Fél. Prol. 74 .
cíaptar, Ep. 14 .Perf. 1 s. ciarpsa, Wb. 30a6 .3 s. cíarbu,
13b8 .cíarbo,ibid. cinirbo, 24c22 .
45Forms from later sources.Indic. pres. 1 s. gidhum,
RSClára 55b .2 s. cíasa, Trip.² 1282 .cidat, TFerbe 638 .3 s.
cesu, LU 3799 ( SC 37 ). MacCarthy 400.6 .cīas, Sc.M² 22d .
1 pl. cíammin, BDD² 329 .3 pl. gidat, Anecd. ii 24 § 14 .
Subj. pres. 3 s. ge, ZCP viii 116.28 . gémídhiongmhála mé,
50 RSClára 39a . géleor, TD 20. 13 v.l.(more correctlygiodh
as in text, IGT Introd. cited above).ceinip, IT iii 239.122 .
cenip, MU² 905 . cér' maith dogné, MacCarthy 66.4 . ? cepsi
derb`of a sooth', Arch. Hib. iv 206 § 16 .Impf. 3 s.(cíambad,
cíamtisperh. from cíano bad, betis, IT iWtb.s.v. 3 cia ;
55modelled ondíambad, Bergin, Ériu xii 206 n.2 ):cíambad,
MU² 140 .ciambad, Airne F. 89 .cemadh, CCath. 5415 .gid
mad, TTebe 1011 . ?gembo, IT iii 94.12 . In later lang. freq.
gémadh.3 pl. ciamdis, Anecd. i 21.5 .cíamtis, LU 2285
( FA 34 ).cenptís, Fing. R. 230 .Pret.andperf. 3 s. ciarb, LL
60 22662 (CRR). cergním, 28196 ( Met. Dinds. ii 74.30 ). gér
mhaith, TD 14.29 . gérba, SG 168.z . gégurb, Dánfhocail
64 .cérbat, LB 138a23 ( Todd Lect. vi 64 ).cersat, 4a5 ( PH 250 ).
IWith follg. subjunctive.
(a) if,even if, in thecase that, in theevent that (often almost
65identical in meaning withmá, Bergin, Ériu xii 206 ):ceim-
roimsimmis`if we should sin', Wb. 9c10 .batorad saithir
dúnn . . . cedumelmis cechtuarietcedugnemmis andugniat
ar céli, 10c21 .cia sulbirigergl.si orem lingua, 12d10 .ceni-
thaisid ar ois`unless ye go thus willingly', Ml. 33b15 .cenis-
70nícae`if Thou save them not', 88b7 .ci insamlargl.si eos
imitor, Sg. 1b1 .ceni et huaitsiu if I don't get (it) from you,
Vita Br. 25 .trí toichnedai . . . cia be[i]th rí etc.(one is) the
case in which a king is
. . . , Críth Gabl. 548 .cenis beith biad
acht rusbeth deog, Vita Br. 23 .ceni therna if he should
75happen not to return
, Ir. Texts i 21 § 17 .cia dogne ín bean
cinnta should the woman commit crimes, Laws iv 60.26
Comm. ni imdich cia beth cuit do indib`it shall not shelter
him that he has a share in them
', iv 202.2 .cia fo-certa míach
. . . for a mullach if, BDD² 347 .sund cia no chráidem in
80Ríg / batin aithrig is tir thall, Ériu i 68.14 .ciathias ann,
LB 126b33 .ro badh iongnadh . . . / gémadh . ., DDána
42.34 .cía . . . cía, ceni, cen co whether . . . or (not):cenonmolid
cenon airid`whether ye praise us, whether ye blame us', Wb.
16a1 .ciatroillet ciniarillet`whether they deserve it, or deserve
85it not
', 31c23 .gerbh āil gin corb áil leō whether they liked it
or not
, Arch. iii 5.33 .cia fogabad cenco fagbad, LL 7328 .
(b) As explic. and finalconj. that (frequ. in clauses depen-
ding on words meaning good,fitting,permissible ,etc.See
ZCP xxix 181 . Somet. with perfective subj., Thurn. Gramm.
343 , 562 ):is cett lem don aegaire / cía nobeth sund co sona
5 that he should be here happily, BColm. 98.7 .bacoir cena-
chomalnithe, Wb. 13a33 .cubaid . . . cé mad i lub-gort,
PH 3020 .is dedbir duib ciforrgot`that they destroy',
Thes. i 714.14 .badethbir do cinifesed . . ., 3.39 .is dual ┐ is duthaig
duib ciadogneiti calma, BB 429b41 .isfo lium ciarafesid`that
10ye should know it
', Wb. 14b20 .immaircide . . . cerubet
ipéin ladiabul, 26a23 .cia dulogae doib a nuili torgabala on
gl.licet indulgenter omnia contuleris semel electis, Ml. 138b7 .
is licet cia nospromae, Ériu i 202.7 .ba loür . . . / . . . comrac
frium / ceni lomardais tre barr / mo dá n-ó dim chiunn,
15 Blathm. 94 § 17 .ni maith less cia gabthar do, Wb. 29b5 .
nec mirum .i. ciasingbat árim déṡillabche compariti ┐
superlati, Sg. 44b3 .ní mebul lemm ciafadam`I am not
ashamed that I suffer it
', Wb. 29d27 .ní mór duib cia chomallaide
aní . . .`that ye fulfil', Ml. 95c3 .ciat ngneitis niba
20romh`they should have recognized him immediately', Blathm.
391 . Note also:nísnain ciasberat níntánicc recht the fact of
their saying . . . will not protect them
, Wb. 1d1 .amal nandéni
mascul dindí as auxilium cebeith genitor áarrad the fact of its
being accompanied by
g. does not make a. a masculine, Sg.
25 125a6 (alternatively:a. does not become masculine even
though accompanied by
g.).
(c) although, inspiteof thefactthat, eventhough ( Thurn.
Gramm. 561 ):bésu dagduine ciniestar cachtúari, Wb.
6b23 .ciachondesin farsúli`though I had asked for your eyes',
30 19d24 .cini eperthe frinn`even though it should not be said
to us
', 19a5 .cenitormastar homéit istrom cenae ho aicniud
even without its being increased, Ml. 20a20 .ciarubé cenní
diib nirubai cenaib huli, 20d4 .cechonístis nombetis archuit
analoige`though they might be as regards analogy', Sg. 138a9 .
35 canair son ce beith tuaslucud`it is sung, though there be a
relaxation
', Mon. Tall. 139.4 .cīa dofaetsad nem for talmain,
BColm. 104.17 . ?céini rogalta in fēin`though thou hadst not
promised
', Fianaig. 12.18 .darbord cia bé`haughty though he
was
', MacCarthy 186.7 .ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin,
40 ZCP viii 116.21 .gé bheith duine go díomhaoin, Dán Dé xxii 5 .
Very freq. withsubj. pres. 3 s.of copulacid though (it be),
granting that it is:ced nessa cenél neich alailiu, Ml. 115d7 .
cid doib doarrchet, Wb. 5a16 (wherecidis perh. used as
indic., Thurn. Gramm. 484 ).cidmebul lib, 3b30 .cith .m.
45namma scríbthar and, Sg. 28a15 .ceith dichrai a ndaithrigi
`however fervent their penitence', Mon. Tall. 134.12 .cid
dīthrub Temair, Thes. ii 317.7 (Hy. ii).cit(pl.)réidi reba,
Trip.² 1278 .cenid mé in murgelt már, LU 3022 .gidh
aoibhneas an domhan mín, Dán Dé xxiii 35 .ciodh glan mo
50chrábhadh, Keat. iii 1703 . Perh. also:cid etir in fact, indeed,
LL 31730 (TTr.).cidh on in any case, O'Don. 39 ( H. 3. 17,35 ).
Note also:gidhedh nogabdais / ō Bh. co B. though they should
go from B. to B.
, ZCP viii 110 § 7 .ní thiobhra an corp cead a
mhúinte / a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though that is
55what I desire
, Dán Dé xix 6 . ?cipithair mo mac inn nī
romarbthar though my son come, ZCP xiii 178.19 (cf. cid bé
s.v. 1 cía?). Withimpf. gémadh naomh even though he be a
saint
, Dán Dé vii 29 .gemadh fili, St. Ercuil 1231 (even?
seeinfra).
60 cid . . . cid whether (it be) . . .or:cidcían cidgair, Wb.
3c5 .cid in imniud cid hisocumail beusa, Ml. 53b8 .cid bec
cid mar, Sg. 2a7 .ceith mín cid anmín`slightly or strongly',
Mon. Tall. 148.24 .cidh islip cidh uaislibh`whether they be
plebeians or nobles
', Laws iv 26.20 Comm. ainmne is umaldóit
65certae / cid maith, cid saich, cid bochtae`which set right
good and evil and poverty
', Ériu iii 104 § 38 .gidh sunn, cidh
tall no mairmis, BNnÉ 313 § 5 . Withgé:ge garid gé étgene /
dit álaib fo chen, LU 10429 ( ZCP iii 258.9 ). With ellipse of
secondcid:cid cian gairit, IT i 118.13 (TE Eg.).gidh mór
70beag do bhéaradh sibh be your gift great or small, Dán Dé
vi 21 .
Hence inadv.phr. (┐)cid ed however,nevertheless :┐ cided
ón nislán térnatar, LL 256b26 ( TFerbe 429 ).gided tarcid
C., LL 11391 (TBC).cid edh, CCath. 3004 .is gidh eadh,
75 DDána 91.12 .gidheadh ag nach bí éinní`yet hath nothing',
Prov. xiii 7 .┐ gideth, ZCP vi 34.10 .cid ed, CRR 26.3 .ged
ed, TTebe 2092 . In narrative:cērbh eadh, Feis TC 518 .
Withsubj. pres. 3 s.of copula in sense even (somet. as
mere emphasising word). Twice with pl. ending in Wb.:
80 bieit cit geinti hiressich, 4c40 .muscreitfet cithésidi, 5c2 .
Apart from these exx.cidis used irrespective of number
of follg. noun or pronoun (see Thurn. Gramm. 562 ):corrici
cíth besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 .ba apstal cidmoysi`Moses too
was an apostle
', Wb. 32d14 .ní comalnatsom cid feissne
85recht`even they themselves fulfil not the Law', 20c22 .amal
dundgniat indfilid linni cid insin`even as the poets with us do',
Ml. 26b10 .cid na hualchagl.superba (loquentes), 31c22 .
cidnanguidegl.etiam supplicationum (similitudine), 32c18 .
cid ostú a Dé`even Thou, O God', 43a18 .cid inna hí ata beca,
62b10 .iscuse cidedongl.et id actenus, Enchir. Aug. 72b
5( ZCP vii 480 ).ceth anísiu`even this', Ériu ii 224.3 .ro
thóraind gid tige in dúine sin, FDG² 30 .
Hence in isolated glosses on Lat. particles:cithgl.et,
Wb. 22a5 (a prima manu).cidgl.et, Ml. 14a1 . gl.etiam,
24c2b ; Sg. 9a4 . gl.etsi, Ml. 23c4 . gl.iam, 15b2 . 48b14 . gl.
10 quamlibet, 46c16 . gl.quamuís, 55c12 . gl. (iusti)que, 38d3 .
gl.quidem, 14a15 . gl.quippe, 127a8a . gl.quoque, 101a13 .
Sg. 16a2a , see Études Celt. xi 112 . gl.saltim, Ml. 86c7 . gl.
uel, 99a1 .
With follg. prep. and noun:cid cossin nóin, Wb. 2a21 .
15 ceith cenmathá integdais nucut`even besides yonder house',
33a4 .cid etir na cumcai, Ml. 18d24 .cid a techtugad tire,
Laws iv 24.20 Comm. nī tibur-so in tinnscra sinee (leg.sin ?)
cid ar Meidb Crūachan feissin, ZCP iv 39.9 =ní thibrind i
tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185 .cid aire sin namá if
20only for that reason
, Ériu ii 194 § 7 .cid īarna ētsecht`even
after his death
', BColm. 98.25 .
With adv.cid indemin`even assuredly', Wb. 9c18 .cid
inbiucc, Sg. 39a25 .ceit co matain till morning, Mon. Tall. 152.6 .
With verb:cid átrebfeagl.et habitaturum, Ml. 36b14 .cid
25reminota .i. cid remínetarcnaigedar`that it even prenote',
18c12 .cithissegl.et qui, Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). Usually
with clause introduced by conj.:cidamba cocuibsid, Ml.
32b21 .asber cid arind molatar inna nime fesin`he even tells
the heavens themselves to praise Him
', 145d4 .cidrisíu robǽ
30cland les, Wb. 29d23 .cid co tisad gáeth etorro ┐ talam even
to the extent that
, LU 8389 ( FB 26 ).is bec cid dia fesstar
a chenél`his kin will be almost unknown', RC xxiv 176.5 .
cid intan ná torsed F. chucu`even if Ph. should not return',
Ériu iv 142.7 .níor fhás giodh acht cáora con not even(?),
35 Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.38 .
With follg.itir:génnti na rochretset cid itir at all, RC
xii 426 § 13 .is fodāig na mnā cid etir roferfaider si (sic)
fāilti frit`that you get a welcome at all', ZCP v 501.30 .fri re
naenuaire cidh itir`even', Ériu 22.31 .acht másu ḟerr cid
40etir do ḟlaithseo, LL 278b49 .
In more generalized meaning of as to, asregards,as for :
ceth Máolruoin nipo calad`as for M. he was not stiff', Mon.
Tall. 135.24 .cid aidchi lúoin ma dorona`as to Sunday night,
he is to do so if he can
', 132.28 .ceith dand erán ┐ den seildind
45imbe`both as to the bread and the "selann" of butter', 151.24 .
is cid Nuadu Necht . . . / romarb Eterscél . . . / . . . is cid
Fergus mac Róig, LL 6429 ff. cid cath Ailbe as for, LL 4127
( RC xxiii 312 ).cid C. dana as regards, TFerbe 326 . In later
lang. somet. very vaguely applied.Cf. atbath cidh araill
50dibh dfuacht, FM iii 250.5 .ciodh iar ttriol`not long afterwards',
312.11 .
In later lang. somet. with supporting pron.:gidh é
doighech na ndernann even the pang, IGT Decl. ex. 799 .
cidh iad fiora F. tugadh éccendáil forra, FM ii 1042.x .
55 ┐ gidh esidhe ni tearna uadh, v 1484.x .Meic Mh. fós—gidh
iad ann, TD 4.15 (see note).
With subj. impf. of copula:gembad gar even for a short
time
, Met. Dinds. iv 52. 133 .
IIWithindic.(see Thurn. Gramm. 561 . As a rule con-
60cessive in this use, butcf. Wb. 16b9 cited below).
(a) With inf. pron. (on the form of3 s. m. n.see Thurn.
Gramm. 269 ):cinid arillset, Wb. 4c39 .ciasidroilliset`though
they have deserved it
', Ml. 77a15 .ni indráigne dúib cininfil
lib it is no detriment to you that we are not with you, Wb.
65 16b9 .cenis pendid`though they do no penance', Mon. Tall.
135.13 .
(b) Where the sense does not require an inf. pron. a
particle-(i)d-is infixed, if necessary by means ofno-
(see Thurn. Gramm. 269 , 324 -5).cerudglanta tribathis,
70 Wb. 4a6 .ciarud chualatar ilbélreetcenuslabratar, 12d28 .
cinidfil chairi linn, Ml. 30a2 .cenidfetarsa andliged nisin,
55d21 .ciaridberam a céill`although we express their sense',
Sg. 26b2 .cenod filchotarsnataith etarru, 29b17 .cenodfil,
192b5 . quanquam.i. cinud, 17a3 .cenit fregart mac ind
75righ, Blathm. 96 § 24 .méti cénid chocerta, LU 8899 ( FB
68 ). Note also (withsubj.):cinidaccastar`though he be not
seen
', Wb. 26a12 (see note).
Somet. without infix in O. Ir.:ciasbiursadeus etc., Wb.
2b18 .cerubaid fopheccad`though ye were', 3b19 .ciadurat
80som digail forassaru, Ml. 94c17 .ciabatar degtacrae les
`though he had good arguments', Tur. 81 . So regularly in
later sources:cení frecmairc coibsina`though he does not ask
for confessions
', Mon. Tall. 135.15 .cé dogénsam ainmne,
Arch. iii 295 § 22 .gé ro sgoilt cuirr a chroidhe, Dán Dé
85 xx 29 .gé 'tú, TD 25.42 .gé a-tád, DDána 3.32 .ge ro baoi,
FM v 1734.13 .