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15 1 cía interr. and indef.pron.Given in list of interrogatives,
Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited
in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See Thurn. Gramm.
§§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.
AAs interrogative.
20 IGeneral formcía(ce,ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,'
Thurn. Gramm. § 456 ) without indication of gender. In
later lang. freq.cá,gá(cf. gia, TBC 56 ,giá, 730 etc.). who?
what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).
(a) With dependent verb (asconj. part.or in accordance
25with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.:cia beir búar o thig
Temrach who takes? LL 1566 .cía rét Brega? LU 9306 . ?cia
saig do rús Herind. . .? LL 1787 .cía taisiu? LU 6307 .cia
bátar do bésa? Tec. Corm. 7 .ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích
`whose was', Met. Dinds. iv 4.45 .immoscoemorcuir ceptar
30hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object:ce róich`how far . . . extends',
Sg. 26a11 .cia roich eneclann? Laws iii 536.1 .cia-roig dire?
Ir. Recht 13 § 14 .cia fairneac? Ériu xi 44.3 .cia acca whom
didst thou see
? LU 7135 .bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd.
i 7.5 (do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in
35 cíar(r)icc(separate article). Rarelycidin this use.Nom.
cid dernad? LL 251a18 .Accus.cid dernais? LL 251a39 .
With inf. pron. usuallycich-:cichib foruireth? . . . fon-
roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP
iv 45.28 .cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you(i.e.
40 how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 =cichib roér ol Bodb.
Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 .mnā brataiter
. . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them?
TBC² 1081 (cicen,cíche,ciche, LU). ?ciche bárogell a regg /
sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally:ar feisidh
45ciab dergeine`who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 .fir gontair,
mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir?
TBC² 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .
With copula:innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi
`that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection',
50 Wb. 25b27 .conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 .
Forcía ba chanseecan.
Hence in variousadverbialmeanings. (b) how ?cia Ulto
ána acca? LL 13439 .cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3
(`how', Gloss.).cía festa`how should ye know?' Met. Dinds.
55 iii 48.12 .cia ḟacci ar sluág? TBC 223 .is cuma dó c. ¤ eipli, Liad.
and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Meyer Contribb. 363 . With
deut. form:cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi? Met. Dinds. iii 148.1 .
Note also:cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when?
ZCP viii 312.29 .
60(c) where ? In later lang.cá,gá(nasalizing), with narrative
tensecár.cá`lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. withtéit:
ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SC 12 ).nocon
ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb.cia
dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.:
65 cá ngabhaid? Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 .cá bhfaighion
tú an raidhirc so? ZCP v 215.419 .cā ndearnais do c[h]ēad-
c[h]reach? Feis TC 145 .cár ghabh, 490 .cá ar fríth é? ZCP
v 215.418 .carbh ail les dul, St. Ercuil 981 . Withattá:ga
ffuil maithe na Féine? Duan. Finn ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151).
70 ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh`what is the abridgment?'
Donl. 52.22 .ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., St. Ercuil 25 .do
f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis TC 1666 .
Note alsocia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.
(d) Withfíuglossing Lat.quam, how (great,etc.):cia fíu
75.i. mór nígl.quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl.quam
(sollicite), 23a10 .ce fiugl.quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict.
Fasc.F 159.16 ff.and comparecia fiú me bheith beó etc.
how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .
(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause).
80With masc.:ciachruthgl.quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (seecruth).
cia dune ind inni-sseogl.qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 .
cia mod .i. imba do gres . . .`what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh.
also in the follg.:dús cia port indib maith óigedacht`in what
place
', Wb. 26b24 .cia salmscribdid conicfed són`what
85psalmist
?', Ml. 14a6 .amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia
regtais, 99b10 .cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 .cía cethrar?
Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth Gabl. 536 .cia file ar secht ccumha-
luibh dlighidh what poet. . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 .cia fot atúsa
isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 .gá fad? TSh. 1618 .ca
sén dob ferr? Ériu iv 224.13 .ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-
5cluineam? TTebe 1901 (seecrét).ca hinad? LB 137b51 .gá
cara don uile as fhearr? A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 .
gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 .gá chúis
fá . . ., 12 .cár bh'iongnadh? Hard. i 204 .
(f) With fem.:cia airm`what place', Wb. 12d18 (seecairm,
10 cáit).ceseircgl.quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently
Thurn. Gramm. 289 ).ce meitgl.quanto, 33a1 .ce mét
aimmser bes indi`what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 .ce
méit a[s] sinu aísquamA.`how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See
méit.cia dúgl.quo, Ml. 40c7 .cia inni soas`how He turns',
15 123d8 (see note).cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth
thiucfus Dia? RC xxiv 382.32 .ca delb rogabais?
Ériu iv 104.15 .cia ben is mesa do mnáib? ZCP viii 113.11 .cá slat
is slimghile bas? O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 .ga hobar dhíbh nach
doiligh? Studies 1921, 588 § 1 .gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear?
20 Dán Dé xxv 16 .
(g) With neut.:cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se
`how long?' Ml. 33a9 .cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 .
cia hairet, PH 1501 . Seeairet,cairet.anfis ca cinel aire nos
beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib,
25 Ml. 33a9 .na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 .cia
indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 .décaid . . . a arm
cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (seeindas,cindas).cia leath
reghma? Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ).cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .
(h)cíawith follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering
30oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see Thurn. Gramm. 228 - 229 ):
cia ar neochgl.ad quid, Sg. 217a5 .Cf. cia erneogl.quam ob
rem, Ml. 101a4 .ci erniugl.quamobrem, 47b1 .cairhe biit, Sg.
242b1 leg. ciairneo=quamobrem, n .ciarrétgl.quamobrem,
Ml. 48c2 .cidegl.de quo(cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 .cia du
35neuchgl.ad quem. . .? Ml. 16a9 .cia dunaib hi do foirmsed
gl.de quibus adderet? 35a17 .cia du forcunngl.quem ad finem,
33a9 .cia du rétgl.cui rei? 121d1 .cia isnaib hígl.in quibus,
49c13 .cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuthgl.in quem ussum, 46b28 .cia
i n-olcaibgl.in quibus malis, 23b2 .ci onaibhi, gl.quibus,
40 47a10 .cio ainmnid dixnigidirgl.ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg.
207b3 .ciofutgl.usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 .ci ho fothaib
sóngl.quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 .ci o
retaibgl.quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl.ex quibus rebus, 44d24 .
cio thomusgl.qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later
45lang.:cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donl. 364.16 .
ca as a tangadar, St. Ercuil 1412 .casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr.
Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr.gá d'ulc what is the harm
of
? (see Fasc.N-O-P 135.37ff., Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ).gá
d'ulc bogur an bhása? IGT Decl. ex. 758 .gá d'ulc mé gan
50mothugadh? ex. 224 .gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar? O'Gr. Gat.
470.9 .Cf. cair. See Éigse xii 136 .
(i) In phrasecíadono why(then)?(see Thurn. Gramm. 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .):
ar cia donogl.ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 .hóre ro-n-ortigestar
dia cedono tuidecht friss`why then?' 6a4 .ce dono rigne
55occo`what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 .cepu dono
adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool? 7d16 .ciapu dono dún indarpe
geinte`why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 .
?ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona,
ZCP x 344.13 .
60(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts
withsuperl.:cia measom do cain ts.?`what is the worst of. . . ?'
Laws ii 194.1 .cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 .
cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh,etc., 25.6 . Prob. also:cia so
do rinnibh etc. 20.30 =ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In
65later lang. in phrasegá beag is it not enough?ga beag mur
ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 .cá beag d'fhiadhnaise?
Studies 1920, 97 § 2 .gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 .gá bheag
dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you?
Content. vi 25 . Freq. withcompar.in rhetorical questions.
70 Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z .
gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)?
DDána 12.1 .ga deacra ní do neithibh? IGT Decl. ex. 938 .
car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh
a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . ., ZCP vi 269 § 4 .ca ferr
75duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a
fágbail aigi? LU 2769 (colophon).gá fearr m'áis-se ná
m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain
me
? Dán Dé i 5 .ga feirdi me do m[healladh]? Bard. Synt.
Tr. 45.2 .cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 .gá misde don cholainn
80chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán
Dé xxv 41 .m'uabar gá mó mínáire? O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 .do
Mhuire gár mhó guasocht? Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also:cá
minic do chionntaidh sé`how often', Donl. 320.28 .an lícc
dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na
85uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ
8.16 .
IIInflected (`more fully stressed', Thurn. Gramm. § 456 )
cía,cisí cid,citné etc.In classical verse the formsciaand
ciodhare stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . .
were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti(cf.
5mod. Ir.cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .
With indep. form of verb (a)cía m.:cia beraid doib a
remeperthe`who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9
(perh. transition fromI(a) above). Usually with rel. clause:
cía rédes ruind? BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba? RC
10 xxiv 194.1 .cía de as sru[i]thiu? Críth Gabl. 492 .cīa nād
cūala? ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no
mark of rel.:cia con-icc ní dúun? Wb. 4b11 .cia folínfea?
12d14 .cia dobera íc do Sión? Ml. 34d5 .dús cia atrebea isin
chathraig`to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 .cia de
15dogega`which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 .dús cīa díb
do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 .caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō
a mbeo . . . ? TBC² 681 (cia dé, LU).do fiarfaidh A. de cia
dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui
vicit. . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid? LL 281a32 .cia aca is rogha
20leat? Hard. i 274.y .
(b)cid n.(rel. frequently marked):cid aem no-dom-bera-sa
cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 .cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi`what
impels you
. . . ?', 9c20 .nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 .ro fitid
cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 .dús cid forchomnacuir indi
25`to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 .cid du-gén-sa
osme`what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 .ní fintar cid attrebthar
and`what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 .niconfetadar cid
fodruair`they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall.
147.13 .asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I
30do not understand your continual singing of the Beati
, 127.2 .
cid dogén? ZCP viii 113.9 .cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast
Thou got from G.
? Arch. iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising
rel. clausewhat ails, what is the matter with? seeattá. With
copula:nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml.
35 51b7 .dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi,
51b8 .cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife?
ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in:na cóig guthaidhe,
cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as
leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhogh-
40rachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .
With nouns in sense whois?whatis?
(c)m. cía(also occasionally with other genders, and
regularly withainm, see Ériu i 9 ):cia haes esca? SR 7964 .
cía méit in gill? Críth Gabl. 282 .cía [a] míad sidi? 586 .cia
45th'ainmsiu? LU 10774 .cía hainm? what's your name? BDD²
264 .cía hainm dá mnaí? 365 .cia n-anmand what are their
names
? TFerbe 357 .cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn? ZCP
viii 105.12 .cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se? Ériu iv. 142.21 .
nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 .cia don
50teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 .cia an monghar
mór-sa? DDána 85.6 .cia an duine bhias beó=quis est
homo? TSh. 3125 .
Forms in-so,-su etc.(cf. indic. pres. 3 s.of2 cía. See
Celtica vii 38-42 ):ciaso baili ata in crann? SR 7931 .ciaso
55buaid duinne? Bodl. Dinds. 27 .cia so gním what deed? TBC
958 .cíasu anmann bai for suidiu? IT ii2195.153 .nī fetar-sa
ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 .ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in
bas-crann? Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?').ciasa fogealtad
son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc
60doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run,
Auraic. 5210 (císi,v.l.).ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your
master's name
? LL 9041 (TBC).carsat comainm? Acall. 390 .
ciarso choma no bértha dó? LL 8937 (TBC).garsa gním
sain? 9990 (TBC).
65(d)cíawith pron. whois?cia tussu díxnigedar who art
thou
? Wb. 4c24 .cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siugl.qui sis, Ml.
75c9 .ciahégl.qui (sit), 14d14 .cia hé`who is it?' 46c17 .
ce hé roscríb`who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 .cinní sin
frisnaiccai siu`whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from
70 intí-sin, Thurn. Gramm. § 460 ).cia so who is this? Anecd.
i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ).cía so? Sc.M² R 10 .cīa and-so? 11
(forinso?).cia tusu? RC xxiv 200.9 .fochtuis Feilis scela de,
ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 .cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere
. . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 .beag a fhios
75agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 .
With-so,-su:cía so thú? LU 10768 =ciasu tu,
Ériu xii 170.3 .cársa cúich thú? Mer. Uil.² 90 .cársa cía[s]ib-si etir? 250 .
(e)cíawith follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf.
I(h)above):cia dia fiachaigedargl.ad quem debeat, Ml.
80 44b3 .cia forsa tiagat?`on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 .
nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 .cia ar nach tug a thrócuire?
Dán Dé xxv 46 .cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach
cor? KMMisc. 254.14 .d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda /
fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .
85(f)cisí,ces(s)íwith f. noun:cisí chomairle ǽm`what
indeed is the counsel
?' Ml. 34c18 .cissi slabrai in díscer sa?
LU 5162 (TBC).cissi gáir seo? 4475 .císí (sic) suillse mór
sucut? BDD² 591 .áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so,
Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause:cessi aimser hi rogbath
`at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 .cisi aimsir hi for-
5comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 .cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu
a Dǽ, 100d5 .co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb
thechtas, Sg. 26a6 .cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 .cesí aramgl.
ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 .cisi chiall bís indib
`what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 .cisi muime bat
10tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 .
cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib.(MS.cisi in, text).
cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo? Hib. Min. 3.76 .cise noail
noclanna`by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 .
cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31).rāidh frim cisé (ciséd,
15 v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, Arch. iii 294 § 13 .cisi breth
rucais? Rawl. 113a2 .cissí dichuimni rod dall? LL 21767 .
fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet`look again, what road is
he coming
', RC iii 183.33 .inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir
regthair, Ériu v 120.3 .cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe²
20 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause:tair limsa . . . co ndérais.
Cisí dígal? MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders:
ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 .
ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 .ra iarfaig . . . cissi log
conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ).occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth
25no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also:atbertsat cipsi
magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).
(g)cidwith n. noun. In sense whatis?cid aes ṅ-esci?
BCr. 32a9 .cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh? Ériu xiii 25.27 .cid an
ní seo? BDD² 242 .cid damhna bar ndocesaid? Arch. iii
30310 viii 3 .ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa
d'fhior ón Aodhsa? IGT Decl. ex. 137 .
With follg. rel. clause:imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí
`as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 .cid ḟolad ṡluindes,
Sg. 25b17 (see note).ce toradgl.quem . . . fructum habuistis?
35 Wb. 3b29 .cid chenélgl.quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 .
Perh. also:cidechor(=cid dechor) gl.quae sit differentia,
23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c)above):ced torbe doib
etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 .
ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 .ced slīab inso
40thall? TBC² 614 .
(h)cidwith pronoun:ced ed tra`what is it then?' Wb.
3b28 .cid so? Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ;
ZCP xiii 179.3 .cid sin? BDD² 448 .cid ón`what is that?' RC iii 184.25 .
ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount
45to
? DDána 53.21 .
(i)cidwithDO. With follg. neg.:cid dait-siu . . . nád
bod latt curadmir,etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139
( FB 10 ).cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib? TTebe 1865 .
cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I
50not go
,etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also:cidh duibsi what
think ye of it
? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 .cidh dhúinn déanamh
a bhfeasa`why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .
(j)cidwithDI:cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 .
cid de-side why so? TBC 5580 .
55(l)cidwith prep. and rel. clause:cid asa fordailtea grád
túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down?
Críth Gabl. 6 .Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC
xv 301.5 .cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26,5.18 .
(m) In similar construction in meaningwhy? WithAR:
60 cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 .cid ara
ndluthid caratrad friuiterum? 27a30 .cid ara todlaigther
inso, Ml. 32a5 .cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi?
55d11 .cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 .cid arṅdid
huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar? 198b3 .cid ar bad? Thes.
65 ii 227. 34 .cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach? Críth Gabl. 1 .
cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso? ZCP xi 40.35 . With
DI:cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib? Wb. 13b12 .
cid dia n-éirena(i)tar? Críth Gabl. 121 .rofiarfaig . . . desim
cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . WithIMM(laterFÁ):
70 finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC).cidh
ma tancais alé`why hast thou come. . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 .
cid 'ma n-iarthai? TTebe 1700 .cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag.
118.15 .ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge? DDána 40.10 .
innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. Finn i 78.16 .ciodh
75fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .
(n)cidasadverb, why ?cid no mbetha . . . on what account
shouldst thou be
. . . ? Wb. 4c24 .cid na déccaid? Fél. Prol. 201 .
ced nach maith? Trip.² 1968 .cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . .
cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ).Tond Chlidna cid aréracht? Met.
80Dinds. iii 214.54 .cid éige, a bean? Celtica iv 16.154 .cidh
tāi a[g] gul? ZCP viii 559.5 .cid . . . na caithi do chuidich?
Ériu v 36.19 .do chách ciodh nach aithréasda? DDána
58.35 .cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais? BNnÉ
295 § 22 .Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram
85cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending
with me
? Sc.M² 12 .
(o) where?whither?Withtéit:co n-at[h]comaircter nde
cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 .cid nothēigid ? ZCP xiii 176.8 .co
fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 .
ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 .cid lotar ? LL
5 12826 .cid ghébmoe ? BDD² 245 . Exceptionally withattá:
d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe
33 (leg. cáit?).
(p) In phr.cid tra acht, seetrá.
Plural forms.
10(q)citné,citni(prob. fromcia ata n-é` who,what(is it)
that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , Gramm. § 456 ).assindet
sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the
powers
, Wb. 6a9 .citnegl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes),
Ml. 16b13 .cit né briathra robatar`what were the words?',
15 61b7 .cit né robatar`what were they?', 8 .asindet ón ciné
(leg.citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 .citni rig reachta . . . /
robatar 'sind amsir sin? SR 2347 .citni trenfir dotiarmór-
setsu? LU 10261 .cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad? BDD² 456 .
ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know
20what good there is in my going into the house to kings
, Ériu v 30.2 .
citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 .indis . . . dam . . . / citne
clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Thr. Hom. 110.16 , 17 .
citne tire in geinseadar? Leb. Gab. 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 .
Without follg. noun:citné foruar what are they which He
25has prepared
? Wb. 8b5 .citne and dī rott eblatar? LU 10284 .
citn-éisidi? BDD² 555 . ?citne in ferand? LL 15993 = Todd
Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand,v.l.223 n.).
(r)cisne(described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ):cis
n-é amuis ata chórai? Críth Gabl. 578 .cisne lesa . . . tascnat
30. . . ? Laws i 230.21 .cisne tri leaca robaid? v 450.1 .cisne
sgéith sguirde caithche? Ériu xiii 17.15 .cisne trí gealla
nád fuilled . . .? 33.28 .cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne?
O'C. 2167 ( Eg. 88,5(6)a ).cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech,
O'Don. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b).cís ní doghair oes eiscí?
35 IT iii 262.12 .cia on cotagair æsa escai? 61.18 =cis non
dogar eassa uiscci? Leb. Gab. 264.13 . Exceptionally with
pl.ending:cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP
xii 363.2 .
(s)cis(see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ):cis tána?
40 ZCP xx 372.19 .cis n-dithle`welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 .cis
duirn díolmhuine dlighther? Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 .
cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ? Ériu xiii 26.2 =cis [i]
duar etc., O'Dav. 883 .cis daghmaine domain dingnaith?
O'C. 2460 ( Eg. 88,37(38)c ).cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi?
45 2600 ( Eg. 88,51 (52)b ).
(t) Phr.cis lir how many(are)? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff.
cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir
tairgsin cach fine`how many are the. . . ?', 463.13 .gabála
báise cis lir`the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec.
50Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail,v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause:
cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound?
Ériu xiii 31. 21 .cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine?
Laws ii 344.1 .cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron? Anecd. v 24.16 . With
follg. rel. verb:cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many
55(things) are legal
. . . ? Críth Gabl. 505 .cis lir congellait?
Laws i 230.3 .cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ? Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely
with pl.-t:cesc citlir topuir, O'C. 505 ( H. 3. 18,257 ). See
2 lir.
(u)c(i)ata:ciata glinni con-daigi? MU² 65 .cata cuir
60con-daigi-siu? 72 .ciata builg itir ón? RC xiii 66 § 67 .ni
fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also:
cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .
BAs indef. in a variety of phrases.
(a)cíawith noun:cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her
65mother was
, Vita Br. 4 .cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha
na n-ócc eistidh`whatever place they may sleep' (reading i
ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab. 188.3 .
(b)cíawith vb. (conj. and prot.):cia tīasam wherever we
go
, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i).cia bronntar indi, Críth Gabl. 234 .
70 cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.).
cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say,
Ériu i 227.5 .nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind
gai, TTr.² 158 .a n-athair rempu cia thé`where'er he went',
Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. withadverbialforce:cia bé however
75it be
, LL 382 , 15039 .cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 .cia de do teacom-
nacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes).
Cf. ciadegl.uter, Sg. 242a1 . ?is derb ní báes cia 't bera,
Met. Dinds. i 36.95 .
(c)cíawith indic. ofattá:cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái
80dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC 773 .niconibdis
bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib`they used
not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to
meet
', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ).cipia frisa ferthar
tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu
85 xii 209 ).cía búi de`whatever came of it' (cheville), Met. Dinds.
iii 396.23 .cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.
(d)cip,cibwith noun:cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind
epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 .cip port i ndēntar,
Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually withcruth however it be, at all events:cipcruth
bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 .cipcruth tra, 12d24 .ni confetor
5cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . Seecipindus.
(e)cecipwith noun (see Meyer Contribb. s.v. cech ):cecip
maighean i raegbadh wherever, FM i 30.3 .cecib tan tiostaois,
v 1552.4 .tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever
it was
, vi 2024.5 .cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh,
10 2126.1 .cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg.
the use is strictly speaking interrogative:ní feas cecip tucht
i tudchaidh, FM iii 286.3 .
(f)cipsiwith noun:cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl.
127a44 .cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 (for cip c. ¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ).
15 cipsi cruth`no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 .cipsi mbith
dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y .airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever
it may be
, Laws iv 92.z .
(g)cissí:ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad,
Grail 1979 .case chruth i mbet, Táin 348 .
20(h)cía bé,cipé,cid bé etc.with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ):cia
bé a mmet`however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 .cipé leth
tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 .gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann
`even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. Finn i 84.30 .cipe
cruth, LU 3870 ( SC 38 ).cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 .
25 ce-b e nech and do-neth . . ., PH 478 .cipé a léire baistither
in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 .gidh bé neimh-
dhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 .cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh.
3986 .
(i)cía bé,cipé etc.with verb:ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam
30`whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ).cipé da mbad áil etc.,
MU² 560 .céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ).
atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 .gidh bé ara
geall, 16 .cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 .acht gidh bé éistios riomsa,
Prov. i 33 .gidh be ar bith bheanas ría`whosoever', vi 29 .
35Note also:mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y. 419 .
(j)cipéasadv. atall events ,etc.:cipégl.ubilibet, Bcr.
31c2 .do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce
bé`howsoever it be', CRR 54 .fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig.
50 § 27 .is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 .ciphe
40de, BB 398b6 .
(k)cíabed,bad,beith etc.:ciabed ammet inna fochaide
however great, Ml. 39a13 .cia beith a lin na noged however
numerous the guests
, Vita Br. 7 .ce bad hé frisa ndénte to
whomsoever ye should do it
(so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 .
45 ciabadh hé richt a mbeith`in whatever shape she might be',
Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE).cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith`in
whatsoever part of Ireland she might be'
,ibid. cé beth da
lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ).ge do beith
do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 .ciabadh e, Blathm. 96
50§ 20 ,restored as ciabad de`whichever it be'.cia beith no
co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, Lg. 10 .
(l)ciped(see Ériu xii 208 ):ciped techtas nech`whatever
it is that anyone has
', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ).gip ed no
raditís, TBC 152 .cipead dommaire`whate'er befall me',
55 Ériu ii 90 § 16 .gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall
come
, TFrag. 190.16 .ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC
1089 .giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 .ciped laa . . .
forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu
ii 208 § 28 .cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .
60(m)cid:cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair`whatever
proportion . . . the father is entitled to
', Laws iv 60.24 Comm.
cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 =cib dergona daon, O'Don.
2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ).cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 .
Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever
65brave action
. . . , BB 433b24 .
(n)cid cía:cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 .
seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum,
Ériu xvi 132 § 2 .cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur'
chodail Didho, Aen. 873 .cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 .na
70cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have(i.e. commit)
sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ?gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. Finn
ii 166 § 44 . Note further:cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop,
Ériu v 34.8 .cid bé cia thú`whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 .
ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 .gidh créd do
75íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .
See2and3 cía,cóich.

2 cía conj.(a use of1 cía, Ped. ii 206 , Bergin, Ériu xii 206 . Not a use of1 cía, Greene, Ériu xxi 92 - 3 ) In
O. Ir. alsoce( Thurn. Gramm. 34 ). Before initial vowels
alsoci. Neg.cení,ceni,cini( Thurn. Gramm. 561 ).céa, Trip.²
80 444 .gia, SR 2885 .ga, LL 8354 (TBC). In later lang.gé
( Thurn. Gramm. 111 ).giodh re hucht n-innsgne ┐ molta
┐ bfocuil, ┐ gé re hucht n-oibrighthe, acht gurab cóir giodh
gonta no a leithéid eile, IGT Introd. 8.1 (forgiodhsee
infra). Ongé doin past tense in class. lang. see Duan. Finn
85Gloss.gér chreid, Dán Dé xx 38 .gé go ttainic, Duan. Finn
ii 368 § 26 . In later lang. often reinforced byacht:acht gé
tá, DDána 20.17 .acht ge bhadar, St. Ercuil 1471 . As a rule
unstressed,cf. TD 15.28 note. But the formgiodhis in list
of words which may rhyme, Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.27 , the sense
in available exx. beingeven(seeinfra):giodh: miodh, 39 =
5 DDána 84.18 . As a rule leniting, Thurn. Gramm. 561 . But
not in copula formsce-pu,cia-ptar. Isolated exx. with
gemination (no ref.), Thurn. Gramm. 145 . Not a conj. particle,
and takes absol. and deut. form of vb. in O. Ir. (though it
takes conj. form of pret. of copula, Thurn. Gramm. 491 ).
10 Cf.also:cethuc, Thes. ii 225.19 (PCr.).cé betis secht tengtha /
im gin, Fél. Ep. 125 . See Mulchrone, Celtica v 143 . Occasion-
ally folld. by rel. clause:ciararubartat biuth, Ml. 91b1
( Thurn. Gramm. 320 ).Cf. acht gé bhíos 'na bheathaidh,
TSh. 1222 .
15Somet. replaced as simple conj. bycid etc.(presum.cía+
subj. pres. 3 s.of copula, seeinfra):ced donecmai, Mon.
Tall. 146.19 .cid dognetheress usci, 143.18 .cid arfaomtar ní,
148.17 .cid fogluasa though . . . may, 152.1 .cid chodala a
lórtid, 161.27 .cid ro chloí, LL 521 .gidh atá, ML 56.11 .gidh
20atáid, RSClára 54a .acht gidh do bhí, Eochairsg. 31.3 .acht
cid bíd, Maund. 215 .
Forms with copula.Indic. pres. 2 s. ciaso, LL 344a32 =
ciarba, Tec. Corm. 12.7 .3 s.(leniting)ciasu, Wb. 11c17 .
12a5 . 19a20 . Ml. 26c4 . 26d12 . 67a4 . 67d24 .ciaso, Wb.
25 28c14 . Sg. 211b7 . ciaso, 204a8 .cesu, Wb. 21d13 . Sg. 38a1 .
41b10 . 59a6 . 78b2 . 90a5 . 91a3 . 137b2 . 158a2 . 217b12 .ceso,
21a1 . 206a3 . With neg. cinidlúithlib, Wb. 12b9 . cinid
airi, Sg. 35b13 . cinithmút, 5b4 .cenid, Ml. 42b7 . 44c26 .cenid,
Sg. 181b4 . 202a5 .2 pl. cenutad, Wb. 4a10 .cenotad, 33b8 .
30 cenuded, Thes. i 713.25 . (archaic, Thurn. Gramm. 485 ).3 pl.
cetothóisegu, Wb. 18d14 . cetuchummascthai, Sg. 62a2 .
cetoécintecha, 203b10 . ciatochomṡruithi, Críth Gabl. 493 .
Subj. pres. 1 s. ciabaderóil, Wb. 18a7 .2 s. ciabaloingthech,
Wb. 6c9 . ciafafirián, Ml. 36a32 .3 s. cid,cith,ced,ceith,
35 ceth passim(see below).cinip, Wb. 11d15 . cinip. . .cenip ,
Ml. 59a23 .cenib, 24d22 .3 pl. cit, Wb. 4d4 , 5 , 9a12 . 12a13 .
Sg. 207b11 .cinbat, Wb. 4d6 .Subj. impf. 3 s. ce bad hé
frisandénte, Wb. 9c24 . cenibedáainmsom bes foir, Ml.
23d17 .3 pl. citis,cetiscited Thurn. Gramm. 490 .Pret. 1 s.
40 ciabsa.i. ge do bhí mé, O'Cl. 3 s. cepu, Wb. 2c25 . 4c35 .
ciabu, Ml. 24c12 .cíabocited Thurn. Gramm. 491 .3 pl.
ciaptar, Ml. 98c5 .cebtar, Wb. 4a8 .céptar, Fél. Prol. 74 .
cíaptar, Ep. 14 .Perf. 1 s. ciarpsa, Wb. 30a6 .3 s. cíarbu,
13b8 .cíarbo,ibid. cinirbo, 24c22 .
45Forms from later sources.Indic. pres. 1 s. gidhum,
RSClára 55b .2 s. cíasa, Trip.² 1282 .cidat, TFerbe 638 .3 s.
cesu, LU 3799 ( SC 37 ). MacCarthy 400.6 .cīas, Sc.M² 22d .
1 pl. cíammin, BDD² 329 .3 pl. gidat, Anecd. ii 24 § 14 .
Subj. pres. 3 s. ge, ZCP viii 116.28 . gémídhiongmhála mé,
50 RSClára 39a . géleor, TD 20. 13 v.l.(more correctlygiodh
as in text, IGT Introd. cited above).ceinip, IT iii 239.122 .
cenip, MU² 905 . cér' maith dogné, MacCarthy 66.4 . ? cepsi
derb`of a sooth', Arch. Hib. iv 206 § 16 .Impf. 3 s.(cíambad,
cíamtisperh. from cíano bad, betis, IT iWtb.s.v. 3 cia ;
55modelled ondíambad, Bergin, Ériu xii 206 n.2 ):cíambad,
MU² 140 .ciambad, Airne F. 89 .cemadh, CCath. 5415 .gid
mad, TTebe 1011 . ?gembo, IT iii 94.12 . In later lang. freq.
gémadh.3 pl. ciamdis, Anecd. i 21.5 .cíamtis, LU 2285
( FA 34 ).cenptís, Fing. R. 230 .Pret.andperf. 3 s. ciarb, LL
60 22662 (CRR). cergním, 28196 ( Met. Dinds. ii 74.30 ). gér
mhaith, TD 14.29 . gérba, SG 168.z . gégurb, Dánfhocail
64 .cérbat, LB 138a23 ( Todd Lect. vi 64 ).cersat, 4a5 ( PH 250 ).
IWith follg. subjunctive.
(a) if,even if, in thecase that, in theevent that (often almost
65identical in meaning withmá, Bergin, Ériu xii 206 ):ceim-
roimsimmis`if we should sin', Wb. 9c10 .batorad saithir
dúnn . . . cedumelmis cechtuarietcedugnemmis andugniat
ar céli, 10c21 .cia sulbirigergl.si orem lingua, 12d10 .ceni-
thaisid ar ois`unless ye go thus willingly', Ml. 33b15 .cenis-
70nícae`if Thou save them not', 88b7 .ci insamlargl.si eos
imitor, Sg. 1b1 .ceni et huaitsiu if I don't get (it) from you,
Vita Br. 25 .trí toichnedai . . . cia be[i]th rí etc.(one is) the
case in which a king is
. . . , Críth Gabl. 548 .cenis beith biad
acht rusbeth deog, Vita Br. 23 .ceni therna if he should
75happen not to return
, Ir. Texts i 21 § 17 .cia dogne ín bean
cinnta should the woman commit crimes, Laws iv 60.26
Comm. ni imdich cia beth cuit do indib`it shall not shelter
him that he has a share in them
', iv 202.2 .cia fo-certa míach
. . . for a mullach if, BDD² 347 .sund cia no chráidem in
80Ríg / batin aithrig is tir thall, Ériu i 68.14 .ciathias ann,
LB 126b33 .ro badh iongnadh . . . / gémadh . ., DDána
42.34 .cía . . . cía, ceni, cen co whether . . . or (not):cenonmolid
cenon airid`whether ye praise us, whether ye blame us', Wb.
16a1 .ciatroillet ciniarillet`whether they deserve it, or deserve
85it not
', 31c23 .gerbh āil gin corb áil leō whether they liked it
or not
, Arch. iii 5.33 .cia fogabad cenco fagbad, LL 7328 .
(b) As explic. and finalconj. that (frequ. in clauses depen-
ding on words meaning good,fitting,permissible ,etc.See
ZCP xxix 181 . Somet. with perfective subj., Thurn. Gramm.
343 , 562 ):is cett lem don aegaire / cía nobeth sund co sona
5 that he should be here happily, BColm. 98.7 .bacoir cena-
chomalnithe, Wb. 13a33 .cubaid . . . cé mad i lub-gort,
PH 3020 .is dedbir duib ciforrgot`that they destroy',
Thes. i 714.14 .badethbir do cinifesed . . ., 3.39 .is dual ┐ is duthaig
duib ciadogneiti calma, BB 429b41 .isfo lium ciarafesid`that
10ye should know it
', Wb. 14b20 .immaircide . . . cerubet
ipéin ladiabul, 26a23 .cia dulogae doib a nuili torgabala on
gl.licet indulgenter omnia contuleris semel electis, Ml. 138b7 .
is licet cia nospromae, Ériu i 202.7 .ba loür . . . / . . . comrac
frium / ceni lomardais tre barr / mo dá n-ó dim chiunn,
15 Blathm. 94 § 17 .ni maith less cia gabthar do, Wb. 29b5 .
nec mirum .i. ciasingbat árim déṡillabche compariti ┐
superlati, Sg. 44b3 .ní mebul lemm ciafadam`I am not
ashamed that I suffer it
', Wb. 29d27 .ní mór duib cia chomallaide
aní . . .`that ye fulfil', Ml. 95c3 .ciat ngneitis niba
20romh`they should have recognized him immediately', Blathm.
391 . Note also:nísnain ciasberat níntánicc recht the fact of
their saying . . . will not protect them
, Wb. 1d1 .amal nandéni
mascul dindí as auxilium cebeith genitor áarrad the fact of its
being accompanied by
g. does not make a. a masculine, Sg.
25 125a6 (alternatively:a. does not become masculine even
though accompanied by
g.).
(c) although, inspiteof thefactthat, eventhough ( Thurn.
Gramm. 561 ):bésu dagduine ciniestar cachtúari, Wb.
6b23 .ciachondesin farsúli`though I had asked for your eyes',
30 19d24 .cini eperthe frinn`even though it should not be said
to us
', 19a5 .cenitormastar homéit istrom cenae ho aicniud
even without its being increased, Ml. 20a20 .ciarubé cenní
diib nirubai cenaib huli, 20d4 .cechonístis nombetis archuit
analoige`though they might be as regards analogy', Sg. 138a9 .
35 canair son ce beith tuaslucud`it is sung, though there be a
relaxation
', Mon. Tall. 139.4 .cīa dofaetsad nem for talmain,
BColm. 104.17 . ?céini rogalta in fēin`though thou hadst not
promised
', Fianaig. 12.18 .darbord cia bé`haughty though he
was
', MacCarthy 186.7 .ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin,
40 ZCP viii 116.21 .gé bheith duine go díomhaoin, Dán Dé xxii 5 .
Very freq. withsubj. pres. 3 s.of copulacid though (it be),
granting that it is:ced nessa cenél neich alailiu, Ml. 115d7 .
cid doib doarrchet, Wb. 5a16 (wherecidis perh. used as
indic., Thurn. Gramm. 484 ).cidmebul lib, 3b30 .cith .m.
45namma scríbthar and, Sg. 28a15 .ceith dichrai a ndaithrigi
`however fervent their penitence', Mon. Tall. 134.12 .cid
dīthrub Temair, Thes. ii 317.7 (Hy. ii).cit(pl.)réidi reba,
Trip.² 1278 .cenid mé in murgelt már, LU 3022 .gidh
aoibhneas an domhan mín, Dán Dé xxiii 35 .ciodh glan mo
50chrábhadh, Keat. iii 1703 . Perh. also:cid etir in fact, indeed,
LL 31730 (TTr.).cidh on in any case, O'Don. 39 ( H. 3. 17,35 ).
Note also:gidhedh nogabdais / ō Bh. co B. though they should
go from B. to B.
, ZCP viii 110 § 7 .ní thiobhra an corp cead a
mhúinte / a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though that is
55what I desire
, Dán Dé xix 6 . ?cipithair mo mac inn nī
romarbthar though my son come, ZCP xiii 178.19 (cf. cid bé
s.v. 1 cía?). Withimpf. gémadh naomh even though he be a
saint
, Dán Dé vii 29 .gemadh fili, St. Ercuil 1231 (even?
seeinfra).
60 cid . . . cid whether (it be) . . .or:cidcían cidgair, Wb.
3c5 .cid in imniud cid hisocumail beusa, Ml. 53b8 .cid bec
cid mar, Sg. 2a7 .ceith mín cid anmín`slightly or strongly',
Mon. Tall. 148.24 .cidh islip cidh uaislibh`whether they be
plebeians or nobles
', Laws iv 26.20 Comm. ainmne is umaldóit
65certae / cid maith, cid saich, cid bochtae`which set right
good and evil and poverty
', Ériu iii 104 § 38 .gidh sunn, cidh
tall no mairmis, BNnÉ 313 § 5 . Withgé:ge garid gé étgene /
dit álaib fo chen, LU 10429 ( ZCP iii 258.9 ). With ellipse of
secondcid:cid cian gairit, IT i 118.13 (TE Eg.).gidh mór
70beag do bhéaradh sibh be your gift great or small, Dán Dé
vi 21 .
Hence inadv.phr. (┐)cid ed however,nevertheless :┐ cided
ón nislán térnatar, LL 256b26 ( TFerbe 429 ).gided tarcid
C., LL 11391 (TBC).cid edh, CCath. 3004 .is gidh eadh,
75 DDána 91.12 .gidheadh ag nach bí éinní`yet hath nothing',
Prov. xiii 7 .┐ gideth, ZCP vi 34.10 .cid ed, CRR 26.3 .ged
ed, TTebe 2092 . In narrative:cērbh eadh, Feis TC 518 .
Withsubj. pres. 3 s.of copula in sense even (somet. as
mere emphasising word). Twice with pl. ending in Wb.:
80 bieit cit geinti hiressich, 4c40 .muscreitfet cithésidi, 5c2 .
Apart from these exx.cidis used irrespective of number
of follg. noun or pronoun (see Thurn. Gramm. 562 ):corrici
cíth besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 .ba apstal cidmoysi`Moses too
was an apostle
', Wb. 32d14 .ní comalnatsom cid feissne
85recht`even they themselves fulfil not the Law', 20c22 .amal
dundgniat indfilid linni cid insin`even as the poets with us do',
Ml. 26b10 .cid na hualchagl.superba (loquentes), 31c22 .
cidnanguidegl.etiam supplicationum (similitudine), 32c18 .
cid ostú a Dé`even Thou, O God', 43a18 .cid inna hí ata beca,
62b10 .iscuse cidedongl.et id actenus, Enchir. Aug. 72b
5( ZCP vii 480 ).ceth anísiu`even this', Ériu ii 224.3 .ro
thóraind gid tige in dúine sin, FDG² 30 .
Hence in isolated glosses on Lat. particles:cithgl.et,
Wb. 22a5 (a prima manu).cidgl.et, Ml. 14a1 . gl.etiam,
24c2b ; Sg. 9a4 . gl.etsi, Ml. 23c4 . gl.iam, 15b2 . 48b14 . gl.
10 quamlibet, 46c16 . gl.quamuís, 55c12 . gl. (iusti)que, 38d3 .
gl.quidem, 14a15 . gl.quippe, 127a8a . gl.quoque, 101a13 .
Sg. 16a2a , see Études Celt. xi 112 . gl.saltim, Ml. 86c7 . gl.
uel, 99a1 .
With follg. prep. and noun:cid cossin nóin, Wb. 2a21 .
15 ceith cenmathá integdais nucut`even besides yonder house',
33a4 .cid etir na cumcai, Ml. 18d24 .cid a techtugad tire,
Laws iv 24.20 Comm. nī tibur-so in tinnscra sinee (leg.sin ?)
cid ar Meidb Crūachan feissin, ZCP iv 39.9 =ní thibrind i
tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185 .cid aire sin namá if
20only for that reason
, Ériu ii 194 § 7 .cid īarna ētsecht`even
after his death
', BColm. 98.25 .
With adv.cid indemin`even assuredly', Wb. 9c18 .cid
inbiucc, Sg. 39a25 .ceit co matain till morning, Mon. Tall. 152.6 .
With verb:cid átrebfeagl.et habitaturum, Ml. 36b14 .cid
25reminota .i. cid remínetarcnaigedar`that it even prenote',
18c12 .cithissegl.et qui, Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). Usually
with clause introduced by conj.:cidamba cocuibsid, Ml.
32b21 .asber cid arind molatar inna nime fesin`he even tells
the heavens themselves to praise Him
', 145d4 .cidrisíu robǽ
30cland les, Wb. 29d23 .cid co tisad gáeth etorro ┐ talam even
to the extent that
, LU 8389 ( FB 26 ).is bec cid dia fesstar
a chenél`his kin will be almost unknown', RC xxiv 176.5 .
cid intan ná torsed F. chucu`even if Ph. should not return',
Ériu iv 142.7 .níor fhás giodh acht cáora con not even(?),
35 Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.38 .
With follg.itir:génnti na rochretset cid itir at all, RC
xii 426 § 13 .is fodāig na mnā cid etir roferfaider si (sic)
fāilti frit`that you get a welcome at all', ZCP v 501.30 .fri re
naenuaire cidh itir`even', Ériu 22.31 .acht másu ḟerr cid
40etir do ḟlaithseo, LL 278b49 .
In more generalized meaning of as to, asregards,as for :
ceth Máolruoin nipo calad`as for M. he was not stiff', Mon.
Tall. 135.24 .cid aidchi lúoin ma dorona`as to Sunday night,
he is to do so if he can
', 132.28 .ceith dand erán ┐ den seildind
45imbe`both as to the bread and the "selann" of butter', 151.24 .
is cid Nuadu Necht . . . / romarb Eterscél . . . / . . . is cid
Fergus mac Róig, LL 6429 ff. cid cath Ailbe as for, LL 4127
( RC xxiii 312 ).cid C. dana as regards, TFerbe 326 . In later
lang. somet. very vaguely applied.Cf. atbath cidh araill
50dibh dfuacht, FM iii 250.5 .ciodh iar ttriol`not long afterwards',
312.11 .
In later lang. somet. with supporting pron.:gidh é
doighech na ndernann even the pang, IGT Decl. ex. 799 .
cidh iad fiora F. tugadh éccendáil forra, FM ii 1042.x .
55 ┐ gidh esidhe ni tearna uadh, v 1484.x .Meic Mh. fós—gidh
iad ann, TD 4.15 (see note).
With subj. impf. of copula:gembad gar even for a short
time
, Met. Dinds. iv 52. 133 .
IIWithindic.(see Thurn. Gramm. 561 . As a rule con-
60cessive in this use, butcf. Wb. 16b9 cited below).
(a) With inf. pron. (on the form of3 s. m. n.see Thurn.
Gramm. 269 ):cinid arillset, Wb. 4c39 .ciasidroilliset`though
they have deserved it
', Ml. 77a15 .ni indráigne dúib cininfil
lib it is no detriment to you that we are not with you, Wb.
65 16b9 .cenis pendid`though they do no penance', Mon. Tall.
135.13 .
(b) Where the sense does not require an inf. pron. a
particle-(i)d-is infixed, if necessary by means ofno-
(see Thurn. Gramm. 269 , 324 -5).cerudglanta tribathis,
70 Wb. 4a6 .ciarud chualatar ilbélreetcenuslabratar, 12d28 .
cinidfil chairi linn, Ml. 30a2 .cenidfetarsa andliged nisin,
55d21 .ciaridberam a céill`although we express their sense',
Sg. 26b2 .cenod filchotarsnataith etarru, 29b17 .cenodfil,
192b5 . quanquam.i. cinud, 17a3 .cenit fregart mac ind
75righ, Blathm. 96 § 24 .méti cénid chocerta, LU 8899 ( FB
68 ). Note also (withsubj.):cinidaccastar`though he be not
seen
', Wb. 26a12 (see note).
Somet. without infix in O. Ir.:ciasbiursadeus etc., Wb.
2b18 .cerubaid fopheccad`though ye were', 3b19 .ciadurat
80som digail forassaru, Ml. 94c17 .ciabatar degtacrae les
`though he had good arguments', Tur. 81 . So regularly in
later sources:cení frecmairc coibsina`though he does not ask
for confessions
', Mon. Tall. 135.15 .cé dogénsam ainmne,
Arch. iii 295 § 22 .gé ro sgoilt cuirr a chroidhe, Dán Dé
85 xx 29 .gé 'tú, TD 25.42 .gé a-tád, DDána 3.32 .ge ro baoi,
FM v 1734.13 .