B

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Forms: beithe

second letter in the Irish alphabet, and the first consonant of the Ogam alphabet. Irish name beithe birch ; hence beithe luis, name of Ogam alphabet, see IGT Introd. § 4.

O.Ir. b in absolute initial position, after m (imb), and sometimes after l (Albu) and r (orbae) represents the voiced labial plosive (Mod. Ir. b), and derives from IE *b, *bh and *gw ( Thurn. Gramm. § 188 ). In other positions it represents the voiced labial fricative (Mod. Ir. bh), and derives (i) from the sources already mentioned, together with *p in IE *-pr-, *-pl- (accabor, díabul), ib. § 227 , and (ii) from IE *u in certain positions (tarb, cubus, etc.). It is possible, however, that the sound in case (ii) was not phonetically identical with that in case (i), since they sometimes have different sandhi treatment; compare dupall (dub-ball) with atrefea (atreb-fea) and derbráthair, modern dearbhráthair (derb- bráthair); compare also ropia (ro-b-bia), and in later gairpeann (from garbh + peann), IGT Introd. § 42. The -b(-) of the O.Ir. f-future is, according to the latest expla- nation of this formation (Watkins, Ériu xx), a voicing of f < *sw.

O.Ir. bb in all positions represents the unlenited sound (abb, abbán).

In Latin loanwords initial b- remains (baithis, baitsid). Ir. b- sometimes represents Lat. p- (bóc, Sg. 46a2 ), and medial -b- (<earlier -p-), representing a voiced plosive, Lat. -p- (puball s.v. pupall, abstal, Wb. 10c16 ). The Lat. post-vocalic voiced stop -b- became in Irish a voiced fricative (scríb(a)id, Mod. Ir. scríobhaidh). For -b- for Lat. -f- (cobais) see Thurn. Gramm. § 201.

In the later language b combines with prec. m (Mid.Ir. imm for imb), and initial mr, ml, become br-, bl- (brath, bláith for older mrath, mláith); medial lenited b and m are sometimes confused (mebuir for memuir).

-b-

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pron see .

1 ba

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n death: díbad ┐ bath ┐ b.¤ ┐ teme ic slui[n]d epilten, LU 679 (ACC Comm.). `b.' ┐ `temel' . . . ag sloinned ega, Met. Gl. 3.3 . bath ┐ baa . . . nomina mortis, ib. n. 2 . oiba . . . coinba, echba, duineba, amol iss ainm do bas b.¤ (bath, v.l.), ZCP iii 245 § 55. b.¤ .i. bás, O'Cl. See 1 bath.

2 ba

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n fence, appar. extracted from etarbae: b.¤ .i. fal, etarba damscuithe `a hedge, a fence of oxen (and) small animals', O'Dav. 327. combongat etarba .i. cia coimmbrister in b.¤ bis etarru .i. ailedha ┐ airbedha, 281 .

? 3 ba

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adj (extracted from Berba ?) dumb: b.¤ .i. balb, ut est Berba .i. bir .i. uisce ┐ b.¤ .i. balb, O'Dav. 252. Similarly Dinds. 13 ( RC xv 304 ).

? 4 ba

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n b.¤ .i. breg, O'C. 2067 (H.4.22, 67). Perh. based on some such ex. as Blathm. 102 § 37 s.v. báe.

5 ba

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x see 1 fa.

6 ba

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x see .

7 ba, bá

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x see 1 is.

8 ba, bá

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x see fo, fa, .

1 bá

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x see attá.