P

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the thirteenth letter of the Irish alphabet, is not found in the early Ogham alphabet: ni bi p isin Gaedilc, Auraic. 1271 , cf. 4336 , 4346 . Indo-germanic p when initial or between vowels disappeared in the Celtic languages. Consequently all words beginning with p in Old and Mid. Irish are derivatives from Latin, British, Romance, and occas. Scandinavian sources. In the oldest Irish loan-words from Latin (which came chiefly through a British medium), initial p > c (q), e.g. cland, corcur, Cothraige (Irish name of St. Patrick) < Lat. planta, purpur, Patricius. When Ireland came into direct contact with Latin Christianity and culture, Latin p remained in loan-words, and subsequently p was legitimized as an Irish letter and was called pin in the Ogham alphabet, Auraic. 1365 .

The account given of p in the Auraicept 1269 fg. , 4335 fg. is obscure; apparently it was regarded as the softening (bocad, bogad, a term expld. in Gloss. as unvoicing) of b (acc. to Auraic. 4347 , some Latin grammarians held that bh was written for p, a view denied by others). Later it received the name peith or peith bhog ( P. O'C. , O'R .); O'Reilly explains peith as = beith(e), name of the birch-tree and in Ogham of the letter b, hence peith bhog = `soft b'. (In Hogan Luibh. and Dinneen, peith = dwarf elder.)

In early Irish orthography the letter p, when initial and in the groups mp, rp, and pp, stands for the voiceless labial explosive p; medial between vowels it generally represents the voiced labial b which replaces it in later notation (O.Ir. opair = mod. obair). Late Mid.Ir. scribes occas. use p in- correctly to express medial or final lenited b, e.g. gapaid, ro gap = gabaid (gaibid), ro gab.

In lenition p becomes `f, in early MSS. often written ph (occas. fp). In O.Ir. lenition of p may have been optional, see Thurn. Hdb. § 231 , 5 .

Initial p and b somet. interchange; for exx. see 2 pell, 2 pellec, píast, plae, plaesc, poc(c), práca. P. O'C. gives several words beginning either with b or p, the latter form being colloquial (`vulgo').

Initial p also interchanges somet. with f in Mid.Ir. and later; in some cases p is the older form (see pailm, pairche, 1 pit, promaid), in others f (e.g. O.Ir. fetarlicce > Mid.Ir. petarlaicc).

Irish words beginning with p are prob. all originally loan- words; those of the oldest period are borrowed mainly from Latin, those of later times from Romance sources through the medium at first (from the end of the 12th to the latter part of the 14th cent.) of Anglo-French, later of English.

páb(h)áil

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n i,f. (prob. formed from Eng. pave) paving : an phábháil, Ezek. xl 18 . as coinne na pábhála, xlii 3 . pabhal .i. leaca, Eg. Gl. 510 . Cf. pagáil.

páb(h)álta

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adj io, iā. paved : obair phábhalta do chloich shaphir, Exod. xxiv 10 .

pács, (páx)

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Forms: pácsa, pács, pácsa, páxsa,

n later pácsa (páxa) (Lat. pax) g s. pács, pácsa. ? páxsa m. (g s. ), IGT Dec. § 2.28 . ? g s. clár págsa, ex. 137 .

A kiss, chiefly in relig. lit. of the `pax' or kiss exchanged between fellow-worshippers; also of that given in attestation, homage, etc. Indoitseann papa do ordaig in paxa ar dereadh in aifrinn, BB 14b25 . tiagait do pax maith brathre `they receive the salutation of good brethren', Ériu vii 140 § 4 . toirnfid-sium sis d'indsaigid mo pax (i.e. to kiss my feet), LB 33b6 (: fás) = mu pháx, Lism.L. 1053 ; mo pacs, BCC § 211 . iar ttabairt paxa dona braithribh dó, BNnÉ 75.5 , cf. tabair póicc dona b., ib. 1 . amal dosbeir pax don lebar d'eis a éthig, PH 7341 ( LB 243a54 ). dobeir páxa don tṡéla kisses the seal, O'Hussey TC 140.8 . Marco P. 86 .

pagáil

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n f. the act of paving : a hurlár arna phagail do mharmair, Maund. 77 . The g is prob. lenited, cf. pábáil.

págán

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n o,m. (Lat. paganus) a pagan, heathen : pl. ro teichsetar na págáin, LU 284 . i tempul na pagán, PH 1365 . dee na págan, 1374 . gennti .i. cenél na pagán, Ériu ii 196.5 .

págánach

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Forms: paghanach, paganach, bpágánach, paga- nachaibh

adj o, ā. pagan, heathen ; as subst. o,m. a pagan . righi na paghanach , Marco P. 176 = r. na paganach , 178 . i n-aimsir na bpágánach , TSh. 5583 . ar murbad morain dona paga- nachaibh , RC xix 18 § 6 .

págánacht

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x f. see págántacht.

págánda

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n io,m. a pagan : uathad na Cristaide, at ile na Págán- dai, PH 7258 . do marbad na Págandai, 7261 . indatt Cristaide no indat pagandai? Anecd. iii 71.13 .

págánta

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adj io, iā. pagan : doíne paganta, PH 2675 . na rígha paganta, Fl. Earls 114.2 . do dhaoinibh págánta, TSh. 9762 .

págántacht

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Forms: págánacht

n f. (págánta) also págánacht (págán) paganism : ré linn na págántachta, TSh. 5777 . ó aimsir na págántachta, Keat. ii 5428 . i n-aimsir na págánachta, 5457 .