Cite this: eDIL s.v. N or dil.ie/32894

Forms: nin, n, n, N, n, nn, n, n, nd, nn, nd, nn, nn, rn, rd, n, ln, ll, -nl-, -ll-, n, n, n, N, n

was the fifth letter of the Ogham alphabet, and was called by the name nin ` ash-tree '. It was the last letter of the first aicme or letter-group, of which the first two were beithe (b) and luis (l), hence the whole alphabet was often called beithe- luis-nuin; see Auraic. 976 , 1171 , 2806 , 5505 .

In Irish script n, medial or final (rarely initial) is commonly expressed by a horizontal stroke above the preceding letter.

1. Irish n is of four kinds, according as it is unlenited or lenited, non-palatal or palatal.

N is unlenited in the following cases: when an absolute initial; in the combination sn; in gemination; after r; before a dental (d, t). In these cases, (a) when followed by a non- palatal vowel, it is a dental, produced by pressing the flattened tip of the tongue against the upper teeth, (b) when followed by a palatal one, it approximates to the sound of gn in Ital. ogni, Fr. ivrogne. Unlenited n is ordinarily written nn in medial and final position.

Lenited n, (c) when non-palatal, corresponds to the ordi- nary European pronunciation of the letter; (d) when palatal, is a weakened form of (b). Cf. IGT Introd. § 8 , where appa- rently `.n. trom' = unlenited n (ceann, corn, coirndearg) and `.n. séimh' = lenited n. See Ped. i 152 § 95 , Thurn. Hdb. § 132.

2. In loan-words from Latin, n remains; if final in the Irish derivative it appears unlenited, e.g. mulenn < Lat. molina.

3. O.Ir. nd, medial or final, passes into nn during the Mid. Ir. period; e.g. bendacht (Lat. benedictio), cland (Lat. planta, W. plant), find `white', `hair', gránde `horrible', lend, lind `liquid', mind `diadem', proind (Lat. prandium), rind `point, star' = Mid.Ir. bennacht, clann, finn, gránna, linn, etc. This change occurred early in the case of the art.: np. inda, Thes. ii 47.24 (Philarg.), indá, Wb. 20d5 , beside inna, Thes. ii 247.16 ( Cambr. 38a ); but it is indicated in other occa- sional spellings in the Glosses, e.g. claínn, Wb. 5b33 ; finnae, gl. pilorum, Ml. 72b16 ; linn, Tur. 109a ; proinn, Wb. 28c20 ; pronn, 31b22 ; rinn (np.), Ml. 145d3 . The spelling nd, though no longer corresponding to the pronunciation, continues in use in Mid.Ir. beside nn, and is somet. substituted for nn in words where the latter is the orig. form; e.g. cend, crand, land, mann, rand for cenn (W. pen), crann (W. pren), lann (< Lat. lamina), mand `manna' (Lat. manna), rann (W. rhan). Occas. final rn appears as rd (prob. a mistake for rnd due to omission of the compendium for n), e.g. ocht ṅdúird, LB 63a28 ( IT i 40.22 ) = nduirn (dorn); cartt, ZCP ii 314 x (=carn).

4. Medial ln is assimilated to ll, a change which begins in the O.Ir. period; e.g. élned `pollution' (as-len-), Wb. 11b9 = eilled, Ml. 22b1 ; dun elled, 92d12 ; part. éilnithe, Wb. 31b29 = eillidi (gs.), Ml. 63a16 ; do fuillned (fo-lín-), Ml. 26c6 = do fuilled, 69b6 ; nud-comálnabadar who shall fulfil it, Ml. 46c20 , beside -comallammar, ib., -comallas(atar), 105a6 (< comlán). Similarly -nl- becomes -ll-: brollach (< bron-lach, cf. bruinne and brú, gs. bronn), fiallach (< fian-lach), tellach `hearth' (cf. teine `fire').

Coming between two other consonants n often falls out, e.g. áildiu (< *áilndiu), superl. of álind `beautiful'; ní cumgat, 3 pl. pres. of con-icc (3 s. ní cumaing); aisdís, forgaire, frecdairc, scríbdid, variant spellings of aisndís, forngaire, frecndairc, scríbndid. See ZCP v 1.

5. Initial n is occas. prosthetic, due either to orig. eclipsis of an initial vowel, e.g. Dún n-Áis (= Dún Náis, mod. Naas?), Loch Nén, (prob. = Loch nÉn), or to influence of the art.; for prob. exx. see Nairmein, 1 nairne, nangtha, napa, nena, noll; the word nuimir (Lat. numerus, O.Ir. umir) is prob. a learned re-formation. Conversely, an initial n may be dropped through being assigned to the art.; cf. es `weasel', úall `cry, wail', úna `famine', with 1 nes, núall, núna.

6. N marks nasalization of initial vowels and initial d, g, see Ped. § 261 fg ., Thurn. Hdb. § 237 , and IGT Introd. § 8.

7. In Mid.Ir. n is oft. used in the formation of adjs. in -ach, -aide, abstract nouns and denom. vbs. on the analogy of forms in -ach, etc. derived from n-stems; such derivations are found beside forms without n; e.g. bendachtnach, bennachtnach (bendacht, gs. -an); bertnaigid `shakes, brandishes', beside ber- taigid; créchtnaigid `wounds' (crécht); machtnaigid `wonders', beside machtaigid; mainnechtnach, -naige, beside mainnech- tach; mairgnech `lamentation' (mairg); malartnach, -naigid, beside malartach, -aigid; neimnech `venomous', neimnige `virulence' (neim); nemnaige `sanctity' (nem).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. -n- or dil.ie/32895

1 pl. pron. inf., used in O.Ir. after the preverbs ar-, do- (< to-, di-), di-, fo-, imb-, no, ro, and the negatives ní, nách, to denote the obj. (direct or indirect) of the vb. In O.Ir. occas. -nn- before a vowel. After ar-, imb- and nách a vowel (gen. u or a) is inserted before the pron. Continues in use through- out Mid.Ir. period; in earlier Mid.Ir. sometimes replaced by -ar-n- (nichar-fail, SR 1560 ; ro-rn-indarbais thou hast banished us, LB 112b44 ). Often strengthened by the particle -ni (-ne) follg. the vb.

Exx.: arún-utangar we are refreshed, Ml. 135a2 . hóre arun- táa because it remains for us, Wb. 25d25 . hóre arin-robe, 29d22 . don-eim-ni do thou protect us, Ml. 110d9 (< di-eim-). don-rimmart, SR 3485. don-rogra may he call us, Fél. Dec. 14. don-rua he will come to us, TBC 3332. fon-segar, gl. tribu- lamur, Wb. 14b16 . immun-cualammar, Wb. 18d3 . ní-mun- accammar, ib. immin-timcheltis-ni, gl. nos cingebant, Ml. 32a19 . non-soer-ni deliver us, Ml. 46b26 . non-anich Dia protects us, Wb. 16a4 . hóre dunn-ánic has come to us, 25a21 . ho nun-togaitar-ni, gl. quo circumdamur, Ml. 32a6 . run-leicis huait, 63c20 . ron-mess-ni, gl. aestimati sumus, Wb. 4b22 . ron-bia-ni indocbál we shall have glory, 14c17 . ron-báe biad, SR 1557. ron-bāid-ne has overwhelmed us, TBC 1657. ronn- ain may he protect us, Hy. i 30. ron-sóer deliver us, PH 7827. na ron-tairmescthar lest we be hindered, 6871 .

With neg.: nín-imgaib-ni, gl. non nos fugit, Thes. ii 7.27 . nin-fortéit-ni, Wb. 4a27 . nín-tánicc, 1d1 . nin-tá, 31c7 (= non est nobis). nín-loiscfed, SR 1505. mani-n-soerae-ni, Ml. 77d6 . nachan-tairle, Hy. i 8. huare nachan-sairai-nni, Ml. 93d10 . nachin-rogba úall, Wb. 15d40 .

See Strachan, Inf. Pron. in Mid.Ir., Ériu i 153 fg .

1 na

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 na or dil.ie/32896

art. g s f. and pl. see in.

2 na

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 na or dil.ie/32897

pron. adj. see nach.

3 na

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 na or dil.ie/32898

prep = i n-a see i n-.

1 ná, na

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ná, na or dil.ie/32899

Forms: na, na, ná, nach

adv. of negation used with imperative and perfec- tive subj. (in Mid.Ir. also with simple subj.) to express pro- hibition. In O.Ir. generally written na; Mid.Ir. na, ná; mod. ná. Prefixes h to a follg. vowel. With an inf. pron. 2 nach is used.

(a) with imper.: na ba thoirsech, gl. noli erubescere, Wb. 29d19 . na bad mebul lat, ib. 18 . na cuinged a thoil fessin, 11b18 . na anam di dénum maith let us not desist, 20c14 . ná bat nacha arm aili let it not be any other arms, 22d14 . na imresnad let him not gainsay, Ml. 139a12 . ná teig dochum nAdaim, SR 1152. na dénaid friu . . . cuibdi, 4843 . na briss lugi, TBC 3507. ná buail do choin, Acall. 582. na hadair dee bréci, PH 7310. napadh ingnadh lib-si sin, CCath. 5145. nammongonad d'Ultaib, IT i 73.7 (= na immangonad impers.).

Exceptionally with inf. pron. obj.: nat-saebthar be not deceived, PH 1794.

(b) with subj., freq. with ro: na badat lond-su be not angry, TBC 1106. nárbat buainscélach, Acall. 596. nársat ingnech, 598 . ná ro tréice do ruire, 592 . nar-bar dúrcridig, SR 4842 (2 pl. cop.).

2 ná, na

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ná, na or dil.ie/32900

Forms: na, nar, nach

rel. particle 3 s. and pl., used in neg. sentences, who (which, that) . . . not; in O.Ir. na; folld. by ro, na ro often > nar (nár). With an inf. pron. 3 nach is used.

(a) in nom. relation: hi nepchenéil .i. napo chenéel which was not a kindred, Wb. 5a14 . cipé no na tic whoever does not come, TBC 200. in tí na haittrebann i cranda who dwelleth not in trees, PH 2074. gonaid in anmain ro aentaig frisin corp . . . ┐ na ro aentaig fria a duilem, 8145 . iar ndesmberecht . . . na sruithi . . . na tuaslaicitis in aíne who used not to relax their fast, 5559 .

With inf. pron. obj.: mairg na n-ailind `that entreats him not', RC xvii 150.21 .

(b) in acc. relation: na ro pridchissem-ni dúib (gl. evan- gelium quod non recepistis), Wb. 17b31 . aní ná roich lām, LU 3935 ( SC 44 ). omna na tuargaib in sluag which the host could not lift, Hy. v 69. ni fuil i nhErind laech na diṅgeb-sa, TBC 3656. sui na ro thairind demun, PH 3371.

(c) implying other cases: fer na festar cland na cinél dó, IT i 127.14 . aingil na facus reme a n-indshamail the like of whom was never seen, PH 1900. ni raibi . . . fer na ro-marb-som a mac whose son he had not killed, ZCP i 103.3 .

(d) of local relation (place or time): maigen na áigder rindi in which thou fearest not spear-points, Thes. ii 294.15 ( SP iii 3 ). dū na aicfider bochtu, Ériu ii 144 § 161. bail ná ró do choss lár, TBC 1298. tar aibind domain na be treoir where there is no guidance, Laws iv 126.19 . ro gebdis na longa aile na bidh som in which he was not, RC xviii 53.17 . noco chath na tuitt rí, CRR 5. bied aimser ná-mba lobur when he will not be feeble, Wb. 6b15 (with rel. -n-). tricha . . . nar clod flathus [na] Fer mBolg thirty (years) in which . . . was not vanquished, Mac- Carthy 314 § 1 .

(e) after a prep.: donaib nephacnataib .i. do narobu gnath techt for culu that have not been accustomed to go backwards, Ml. 129d3 . tech inna fera flechod wherein rain pours not, Thes. ii 294.15 ( SP iii 3 ). ri ac na bít géill, LL 146b35 ( PRIA iii 542 § 17 ). connach baí d'Ultaib . . . do neoch do nar bo chotlud who was not asleep, TBC 2962 = do neoch nar bo, St. Folld. by con (cf. ní con): slaidred ṅargait di nacon-bí moín from which no treasure is wont to be, Ml. 85b7 .

3 ná, na

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 ná, na or dil.ie/32901

Forms: na, nád, an(n)á, an(n)a, arná, arna, con(n)á, cona

conj. introducing subord. neg. clause; in O.Ir. generally na, often alternating with nád (nad); folld. by ro, often nar (nár). When an inf. pron. follows, 4 nach is used. Used in O. and Mid.Ir. in follg. cases:

(a) after the rel. adverbs amal, in tain, uair; after a n- when, while and after ara, co n-, introducing final or consecu- tive clauses (in these cases generally forming the compds. an(n)á, an(n)a; arná, arna; con(n)á, cona):

amal na fil i ndia (an)isiu as this is not in God, Wb. 14c24 . amal naṅdéni mascul as it does not make a masculine, Sg. 125a6 (= nán?). in tan na hantai for cocertad Medba since ye abide not by M.'s judgement, FB 75. in tan toccraides don choimdid nech ┐ na denand a chomarli, PH 4016. huare narbu derachtae, Ml. 18d18 . uair ná dernsam cuibdi, SR 1853. an[n]ambaid buidig when ye are not content, Ml. 115b10 . annar-bu buidech som, 40d10 . ánamtar tuidchissi (sic leg.) when they were not led, Sg. 6a13 (< a n-na-mbatar). See also arná, conná (under ar, co). Similarly after other conjunctions or rel. adverbs: daig na tísat that they may not come, PH 1013. o ro bitis . . . oc denum edpart do ┐ na tabrad freccra doib, 1958 . After in (interrog.), nád is generally used in Glosses; but cf. innabet o nach ainmmdiu whether they are not from any nominal form, Sg. 56b1 . ina raibi Gaedelg resiu ro tobaidhe? did not Gaelic exist? Auraic. 13.

Occas. with inf. pron.: arnam-tomnad námmin duine that he should not suppose me not to be a human being, Wb. 17d23 . hore nán rairigsiur because I had not perceived it (sc. peccad), 3c26 . huare nand chumgat because they cannot do it, Ml. 94b3 . aircein nant ro chomairleic som dunni as long as he did not permit it, 53d9 . cf. Wb. 3d13 .

(b) after cid (ar) why? cid arnabu son inchoissised longud? why was it not a word to express devouring? Ml. 56a13 . cid arna techta in psalm-sa titul? Hib. Min. 11.365 . cid arna toet? PH 1218. cid ná tabraid in cauradmir? FB 72. cid nab sin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed ría cach mnaí? why should it not be F., ib. 22 ( LU 8296 , cf. 8318 ).

(c) introducing a noun-clause, either expanding an idea implicit in a foregoing noun or pron. or dependent on a vb. of feeling, perceiving, saying: co n-amairis na-nda-tiberad dia doib that God would not give it to them, Ml. 97d10 (with inf. pron.). is éiseo óen-ni moedim-se . . . na rag-sa fessin that I will not go, TBC 1777. ro fail a mor-abba dam-sa sain . . . na fetar, etc. I have good reason for that, (namely) that I know not, CRR 3. o atchuala M. . . . na cindte na berdais breith fair their determination not to pass judgement on him, PH 611. issed is cóir dúin na ragbam accaind na hindmusa, 6123 . is aire sin nara chóir duit-siu tiachtain, TBC 3527 (na rachóir, Wind.). arnamtomnad námmin duine that I were not a human being, Wb. 17d23 (see Ped. i 118 , ii 223 ). dar lim-sa na fail áth for abaind, CRR 28. ro fhitir na ra bi adbar aile aice, PH 530. Esp. in reported speech: asberad som na mbu tressa dia hirusalem that the God of Jerusalem was not stronger, Ml. 53d6 . atberim frib . . . na híb don chenel fhina-sa that I will not drink, PH 5055. asbert C. nárbu santach fair, FB 90. a[t]bert nár mó a olc dhó-som, TTr.² 73. By extension, after a vb. of asking: ro aitchiset na firu . . . naro indistis [na scéla], PH 3708.

For the copula-form nár in answering a question in the negative, see 3 nád.

(d) rarely introducing a final or consecutive clause (instead of arná, conná): tuargaib leiss . . . é go mbad ra áth a túaid ra beth in coscur ┐ na bad ra áth aníar in order that the victory might be north of the ford and not west of it, TBC 3967. afraig C. . . . na betis áes na fledi cen ól that . . . might not be without drink, FB 27. na tócuir chucut do chairdiu . . . na ro tochuiret- side tusu doridise, PH 6020 , cf. 6870 , 3178 . tuc Dia rath dō narb andsa la cristaigib he oldait geinte so that he was not dearer to Christians than to Gentiles, 310 .

(e) irregular in follg. exx.: (introducing a main clause) ro bádus-[s]a . . . for oen-lepaid ┐ nar fetus ergi, PH 2777. (in asking a question, for nách) `na tu Ferchertne?' ar C. `Me imorro' ar se, Ériu ii 28 § 10. Analogically for no co until after a neg. sent.: tiur-sa brethir . . . nachas-idnaidiub-sa andso . . . ná co clórat fir hErend mo chomergi-sea, TBC 4939 = no co ccluinit, St. na co risat . . . ni ricub-sa, 2890 , cf. 143 (perh. meant for no co).

4 ná

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 4 ná or dil.ie/32902

Forms: nach

conj. (in O.Ir. generally written na) nor ; used after a negative vb. or CEN to co-ordinate an additional member of a compd. (or elliptical) sentence. In O.Ir. na (ná) is used before an accented vowel or consonant, nach before an atonic vowel, see Ped. ii 251 ; later the usage varies (see 6 nach). In O.Ir. occas. geminates follg. consonant.

(a) nitat masculina ná feminina, Sg. 61a24 . ní frith gáes ná gart ná genus, FB 24 ( LU 8327 ). nis-gaibed tart na lia, Hy. ii 29. ní frithalim-se rucai na mmebuil, Ml. 49d3 . ni ruc buaid na bissech TBC, 3484 . ni fhágbaim cair na cin isin duine-sea, PH 2733. co na tardad gráin na hirḟuath leis, Arch. iii 5.8 . ni epur brithemnach for nech na form féin, Wb. 8d26 . conna biam i ngorti na nochti, 16a8 . ní [a]r th'ecla-su na ar th'uamain, TBC 3654. indisimm . . . nach o chride na o anmain dorignius cach ní, PH 637. cen frescsin báis na hirchri, Wb. 3a14 .

(b) in later Mid.Ir. ná is somet. confounded with than (< iná < indaas), and the analogical form náit, náid is some- times used before a plural noun, a form which persists in early Mod.Ir. ar nach faicced firu Erenn nat a mná, LB 238 (c)b 67 = nait a mna, ib. 69 . co nachat anmand uaisle nat sloinnte sochenela noemait nech, PH 5086. ni ghnáthaighdis mna náit bandala techt, Lism.L. 3008 , cf. 2200 , 4564 . ní seoid náid maoine iarruim, ITS v 108.24 . ní ra bhattar longa náit laoidenga acca, FM v 1862.23 . gan leabhair náid mionna i reighléis, Keat. iii 2767. Cf. also the follg. exx. from the Gaelic Maundeville (c. 1475): an bethadach nách facadur ríamh roime ina a innshamail which, or the like whereof, they have never seen, 237 . can aithne inait a ṡoscéil do chumall not fulfilling the commandments nor his gospel, 122 . ní lamhaid Idhail anáid Cristaidhi tadall indtí, 77 . ní roibi . . . grian ná ésca ináit reltanna, RC xxiv 371.11 .

Similarly nás (cf. indaas) is found: nochan fhaicfe . . . fir[u] Érenn nás a mna, Anecd. iii 1 § 2. Cf. da fiarfaigh P. . . . in faichfed leis . . . ar caibthi nas ar comaigh `for a bride-price or a gift', Ériu iv 176.2 (= ).

5 ná

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 5 ná or dil.ie/32903

part than see indá, indaas (I 213.19).

nacc, naicc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. nacc, naicc or dil.ie/32904

Forms: naicc, naicc, naico, naic

part (a) adv. no, not , used in O.Ir. as an independent negative without follg. sent. or member of sent., either in questions of the type: in . . . fa n.¤ whether . . . or not, or stand- ing alone. The orig. sense may have been ` nought ', ` nothing ', see Ped. Gram. ii 261. In Mid.Ir. superseded by acc (aicc). fa nacc, gl. [utrum . . .] necne, Sg. 66a3 . in tree . . . fa nacc is it through it or not? Wb. 2c4 . imb anacol dom fa nac, 23a6 . in comscar Dia són a cairde . . . fa naic, Ml. 91c9 ; ib. 1 . Absol. naicc, gl. non utique (answer to question), Ml. 70c1 . naicc .i. negabo , Thes. ii 9.24 . naic, 6.36 . Cf. non .i. naico , Sg. 23a4 (reading doubtful, perh. naicc). in tan boí A. ag iarraid forba for C., `Neg' ol C. fris, .i. `ní bhía ferann duit', Cóir An. 203 = naic BB (story accounting for the sobriquet of Oengus Nig or Nic); cf. in tan . . . conrotacht ferann fora athair: Nicc nit bia, Rawl. 124a10 . nac quasi nec , Corm. Y 966. [n]acc .i. non nó ondí is nec neconn facire (i.e. from Lat. nec), O'Dav. 1280.

(b) disobedience, refusal: nac Ériu xl 10 § 6 . nac dō .i. tairisem fri forrngaire sruithe .ut dr̄. cen nac cen dichmairc n., moreover, that is resisting the instruction of superiors, as is said: without n., without misappropriation CIH iii 1076.27 (Dúil Dromma Cetta) , Ériu xl 31 . See follg.