geis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. geis or dil.ie/25555

Forms: geisi, gessi, gessi, geisi, gesse, geisse, geis, geasa

n f. g s. geisi, Trip. 42 , 10.10 . ? gessi, SR 3635 . n p. gessi, LL 220b32 . geisi, Laws v 352.2 . a p. gesse, SR 26 . geisse Rawl. 84a43 . geis, IGT Decl. § 14.16 ; § 115 . In early Mod. Lit. pl. geasa. Connected with guidid `prays.' Cf. geis .i. guide, O'C. 2016 ( H.4.22, 36a ); ailges a prayer or request, the refusal of which brings reproach or ill-luck. See Thurn. Heldensage, p. 80 , and cf. Corm. Y 62 . Cf. also oll-geisi `great demands,' Laws v 352.2 , which glosses ailgeasa. See further Ériu xxxii 161-62 , Studia Celto-Slavica iii 18 . In older literature generally:

(a) prohibited act or person , a tabu, a prohibition , the infraction (`coll' `milliud') of which involved disastrous consequences. Sometimes these `gessi' were fortuitous, originating in the fact that a certain course of action had produced disastrous results in the past, sometimes they were rules of honour or prudent abstention, often they rested on deep-seated primi- tive beliefs and ideas. Such tabus might be attached to a rank or office, e.g. the tabus laid on the king of Tara and on some of the provincial kings, BR 2 - 24 (where they are also called urgartha `things forbidden,' and opposed to buada = ada `lucky things' or `things prescribed'). Cf. for opposition of buada and geasa, Hy Many 13.21 , and of ada and geis, CCath. 1166 . See also Macalister, Temair Breg; Baudiš, Ériu viii 104 seq. Frazer, Golden Bough, ch. xxvii § 1 (abbr. ed.), Celtica xxiii 38-59 . They might bind a whole community, TBC 1190 ; RC viii 56.12 . More often they were restrictions on an individual, either owing to the predictions of druids or soothsayers that certain actions would bring ill-luck, or imposed on him by another who had power to punish their violation, or who trusted to his sense of honour or his fear. For a list of Cú Chulainn's gessi see RC xiv 398.

Oen do gessib Ulad labrad ria n-a ríg ┐ óen do gessib in ríg labrad riana druidib, LL 263b17 ( MU 12 ). Cf. TBC 4724 . rochoillsiut ... geissi Conuiri, IT i 130.18 . Commonly as pred. with copula (expressed or understood) and DO (in later texts sometimes FOR) of person: is gess damsa ... dám óenmná do airitin iar fuiniud grene, LU 6986 ( BDD 63 ). geiss dó cárna a chomanma do ithi, RC iii 176.17 . fa geis do Fhothud Cananne ol corma cin chinnu marbu ina fhiadnaise, RC xiv 242.20 . CRR § 23 . Ogam ... ba ges do dul sech gan a legad, Auraic. 5943 . is geas damhsa gabháil tré dhorus éuluighthe, Oss. iii 58.5 . Foll. by CEN to express the idea of a positive injunction: is geis dond ríg cen an ro raid B. do dénam do, LU 10480 . ba do gessib C. cen adall fulachta dia chathim, RC iii 176.17 . geis fair ... cen chomrac n-oenḟir do ḟuacra, TBC 1231 . ba geis dissi cen a fothrucud, LL 125a6 . Sometimes gessi were attached to particular places or objects: tosōisom iarum clār clē a charpait fri hEmain, ┐ ba geis dī annīsin, TBC² 716 . MR 70.12 , Aisl. MC 15.11 - 14 . trí geassa robadar for in sléig sin, Cóir An. § 41 ( IT iii 306.6 ). Cf. Keat. ii 4388 ; TD 19.9 ; Met. Dinds. iii 230.56 . Used elliptically (of persons): gabais cach a suide ... eter gess ┐ nemgess those who were tabu and those who were not, BDD § 59 = BDD² 525.

(b) a positive injunction or demand: ní fil nech ... béras sein ... cora ícthar a gesse .i. enchennach Mercúir ... ┐ claideb Ulcáin, LL 220b26 ( TTr. 257 ). budh ghes do scéith Ch. géimedh le foréigin an tí air a mbeidh C.'s shield was bound to cry out, Trans. G. S. i iv 96.4 . ba geis di í féin d'fhothragadh san tobar ... gacha maidne, Keat. ii 3288 . (Cf. for different construction LL 125a6 supra.) An dara geis gan a ainm do thabhairt ... d'aonlaoch, Keat. ii 3386 . Gen. a solemn adjuration, command or prohibition from one person to another with imprecations or threats of misfortune in case of refusal (the ordinary sense in romantic lit.): do bertsat ... gesa agus airmberta for Coincculainn, da ttísadh úadh gan aidmilliudh furre, TBC 2295 . Cf. ITS v 112.22 . Buile Ṡ. 102.19 . is olc na geasa do chuiris orm, Oss. iii 54.z . cuirim ort de gheasaibh i n-ainm Íosa a innsin, Eochairsg. 90.12 . geis Ruadháin, R's inderdiction (i.e. against Tara), TD 28.42 . Hence of the imprecations or ill-luck which follow the dis- regard of the `geis': geis fort ... da caithe tú biadh, Ériu iii 162.16 . g.¤ dó ... muna imre fi[th]chill rum-sa, ib. 12 . cuirim fa gheasaibh atha ┐ aidhmhillte thu ... muna m-beirir me fein lat, Oss. iii 54.20 . Mór tarla ar an ngeis ngnáthaigh `the wonted trouble,' TD 10.19 .

(c) something unlawful or forbidden; a wrong: gen gnim ṅgessi, SR 3635 . gach duine ghabhas geis eagcóir `an injustice,' Dán Dé xxxi § 20 . gach neach dhíbh dá ndéanann geis, § 21 . óicfher les nach geabtha geis, Ir. Texts ii 32.9 . ? Ocus cath Ocha ... is mó gessib, Arch. Hib. ii 58 § 3 . In common phrase `cen geis' in poetry gen. as cheville = without wrong, flaw, fault (?): méraid cen galar, cen geiss, Met. Dinds. iii 230.58 . blad cen gess, MacCarthy 168.1 . gníomh gan gheis, ML 56.24 . Eoin dalta Crīst cen gheis, Ériu iii 194 § 6. Lism. L. 1286 . A. Ó Dálaigh lv 16. pl. rosderb cen gesse coemruin without restrictions (?), SR 26 . Rawl. 84a43 .

(d) a spell, an incantation: cosna gessi (sic) gráda with love spells, Met. Dinds. iii 216.2 . fair ... atát búada is búan-gesse, 230.56 . ērlama ar gurt co ṅgeiss `a strange ripeness across the field,' Ériu vii 223.32 . is uaidibh (i.e. from the Picts) gach geiss ┐ gach sén ... ┐ gach mana, Todd Nenn. 124.11 . domsoerad ... ar escaine ar aeir | ar ges duine ar gliaid, KMMisc. 255 § 17 . rachuaid im munigin a druidechta ... a gessi ┐ a gentliuchta, LL 222a20 ( TTr. 362 ). faídhis in inghenradh gesa bhar Ch., RC xv 68.1 (v.l. draoigheacht). bhfuil leigheas do gheas le fághail? (refers to Finn's metamorphosis), Oss. vi 16.16 . geasa cruadha d'bhar g-cur ar feoghadh hard spells causing you to wither, iii 248.16 . ag deánamh conjuration no ag cur na ndeamhan fá gheasaibh, Keat. ii 5443 . do bhuail a cheann ar chloich mar gheasaibh ag tuar sonais dó, iii 795 . Nós na mban bhíos fa gheasaibh `under enchantments,' TD 1.18 . Acts xix 13 . nach gabhaid geasa ná gnáithiarmharta greim dhe, TSh. 5956 . a chaor bheo nach beag geasa `of mighty power,' A. Ó Dálaigh xxxv 3.

(e) Exact meaning doubtful: nir'ḟég geiss nó gliaid nó glond `point of honour,' Ériu vii 223.30 . d'ḟiss gessi na ṅgním `to prove the good-faith of the deeds,' Ériu vii 222 § 25 . d'ḟis mo genais as cach geis `beyond doubt,' 229 § 74 . nī dolith (.i. geis) dorōine an Coimdhe gach dūil, ZCP viii 107.12 .

1 géis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 géis or dil.ie/25556

Forms: geissi

n i,f. a swan: geissi, Thes. i 2 ( Reg. 102b ). gnantes (leg. nantes) .i. gēissi, O'Mulc. 383 . gantae .i. gēisi ÉC xxii 211 § 46 . īall gēisi, TBC² 710 . ēill ṅgēisi, 691 . ba samalta fri eill ngéisi ic snige dar mag, RC xiv 416 § 32 . elta do gésib gela, TBC 1327 . gilithar gési, 5633 . gilidir fúan ṅgéssa, TBFr. 104 ( LL 249a23 ). gilit[h]er gés, CS 176.y = FM i 540.14 (géis). Auraic. 3960 (geiss); 5320 (gési). gilithir geis no canach, ZCP xiii 256.21 . taitnem bruit géise fri gréin, Ériu ix 47 § 15 . irricht da géise, v 208.2 . co ndath gessi, Anecd. i 58 § 62 . dath na géisi ar a gúaluinn, IGT Decl. ex. 1217 ; 1908 . glór gach géisi, Arch. Hib. i 93.4 . secht ngéise dég, SG 249.43 . tene saignéin do mharbhadh na ngéisi ┐ na ccadhan, FM ii 680.14 . batar cadain for clár clíu | clar ṅdes gési for suidiu, LL 331c22 = ZCP viii 333.15 (Laud) = Rawl. 158.2 . (geisse). Of a chieftain, TD 16.41 ; 3.30 . Measgra D. 13.24 .

2 géis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 géis or dil.ie/25557

n roar: géis gairbheasa, Measgra D. 5.19 .

géisecht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. géisecht or dil.ie/25558

n ā,f. (géisid) roaring, bellowing: ni lamad míl firend géisecht bud airdde na gúasacht aci-side, TBC 6126.

géisechtach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. géisechtach or dil.ie/25559

x see gésachtach.

géisechtán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. géisechtán or dil.ie/25560

n (géisecht) o,m. a peacock: do chaitheadh ... slinnen muici no geisechtan (sic leg.), ITS xix 72.18 .

géisemail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. géisemail or dil.ie/25561

adj (géis) i swan-like: le h-eol ngleigheal ngeiseamhail, Mann. and Cust. iii 58.41 .

? geisen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? geisen or dil.ie/25562

ind (in rhetoric): la dā muic midísen goss geisen cen os mesed, Corm. Y 397 = 1052 = goss gessan (LB).

géisid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. géisid or dil.ie/25563

Forms: géised

v intrans. cries out, roars, shrieks. Of persons: ro- gesestar in druagh geim n-aichthidhe, Anecd. ii 51.1 ; ib. 12 . Geisid fót brú búrithar bé find, IT i 69.11 . Of animals (esp. of lowing of a cow or bellowing of a bull): géssid bó dib, LL 222b35 ( TTr. 406 ). intan rogessi a gaimmain [leg. gamain, ed.], RC xii 108 § 165 . nach géim no geisitis na tairb, LL 165a50 . Met. Dinds. iv 72.1 . geisidh damh dilenn, Acall. 850 . gesis buar, FM i 178.17 . ra ngeiseand bleigmil do muir, Anecd. i 18.12 . co ngés badb, LL 146b9 ( PRIA 3 Ser. iii 540.18 ). Of inanimate objects (esp. weapons, etc.) groans, creaks: a ra géised scíath Conch., ra géistis sceith Ulad uile, TBC 5986 . gesfid scíath ria m-beim bailc, TFerbe 104 . a sciath a ló gáidh nir' gheis (: éis), Acall. 864 . Cf. Todd Lect. iv 88.1 . ni ro gesistar roth nó fonnud, TBC 772 . amail ro geis in carpat, ib. p. 629, n. 4 . geisidh lec uar aighreta, Anecd. ii 24 § 10 . níra géis ... in chomla, MU² 881 . rogéis brú ina mná, Hib. Min. 72 § 5 (= rogeissi a bru na mna v.l.). Of the Lia Fáil: nogesed fo cech rig nogebad, Erinn, RC xii 56 § 3 . rogēsi Fāl fad chossaibsiu: al-līn ngēmind rogēisi is é lín rígh bias ditt sīl-su for Hērinn, ZCP xiii 372.24 . LL 90a15 ; 30a58 . Keat. i 100.57 , 59 . Of sounds in nature: dogeisetar tri primtonna Erenn, IT ii2 141.479 . CRR § 35 . geisid cuan | ós buindi rúad Rinn dá bharc, Acall. 843 . gesed ritsu Liphi Luirc, Cog. 126.15 . geisidh os chailli C. (of the wind), MacCarthy 120.7 . do- gheisedar na garbhchnuic, CF 738.

Vn. géimm, q.v.; also géised: geiseadh, TBC 6126 (v.l. to géisecht, q.v.). rocluined geissiud ┐ gair na cuislinde, ZCP. xix 118.32 ( D iv 2. 53rb42 ).

1 gel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 gel or dil.ie/25565

adj o,ā fair, white, bright, shining: luaichtidiu .i. aittoitech .i. giul (gl. fulgida), Ml. 40d4 . geal (gl. albus), Ir. Gl. 659 . O'Mulc. 632 , 690 . gel, i.e. gelu ōn reod, Corm. Y 680 . geal .i. caindleach, Lec. Gl. 477 . geal .i. cain, Stowe Gl. 417 . Of garments: co caslaib lín gil, FA § 4 . lenti gela, Hog. Nenn. 60.3 . Of complexion, limbs, etc.: a dá ngrúaid ngormgela, BDD 100 d . TD 8.19 . fa réaltainn chorcra an chnis ghil, 25.16 . il-láim ragil, RC xx 10 § 3 . gela det, IT i 132.36 ( LU 10849 ). Of metals, weapons, etc.: do argut gil white silver, AU i 464.z (an. 946 ). Cog. 94.6 . na gcolg slisgheal, TD 9.23 . Of the colour of the winds: in derg ocus in buide itir ngaith ngil ocus corcra, Laws i 26.34 Comm. , cf. SR 57 . Of the sun: grían gel, Fél. Feb. 10. Prol. 4 . Of scenery: gort geal nach bī fa barr a field lying fallow (?), Arch. iii 236 § 5 . (Cf. geal `stubble,' O'R. ) tulach géiggeal `brightly-foliaged,' TD 4.17 . Of animals and inanimate objects: in n-elta do gésib gela, TBC 1327 . each geal, ZCP viii 220 § 27 . tige snechtaidi márgela, RC ix 476.6 . amal olaind ngil, PH 6200 . na ceirtli gela, Laws i 152.19 Comm. bairgen geal, ZCP vi 283.25 . bhí sé geal (of manna), Ex. xvi 31 . Fig. cona cléir gil gríanaig, Fél.² Nov. 1 . a ṅanmann it gela illustrious , May 19 . dúan gel, IGT Decl. ex. 354 . Equative: gilidir casnaide white as wood-shavings, Ériu iv 94 § 13a . gilithir tonn, tic dar trácht, 96 § 17 . gilidir snechta n-oen-aidche, TTr. 1530 ( LL 237b14 ). Cf. IT i 119.25 . gilithir fírinni ic flaith, Ériu ix 47 § 17 . Compar.: airdri ... as giliu grianuibh, Ériu ii 98.3 . drech fa gili inā gach grūadh, ZCP vii 304 § 9 . Used as subst., whiteness, bright-coloured surface: slabrad ... dar gel a gualand, TTr. 1545 ( LL 237b34 ). geal a ngríos- ghruaidheadh, TD 21.43 .

Compds. ¤argat: slabrad gelarggit, TTr. 1545 . bretnass gelairgit, RC xxiv 200.4 . ¤bán candidus: cleirchén gelbán, cáin a lí, LL 37b54 ( Auraic. 5203 ). Fél. Ep. 287 . ¤báne pure whiteness: is argit gel ara gelbane, LL 371a42 . ¤blad ` bright renown ,' FM ii 752.11 . ¤Bóinn, IGT Decl. ex. 1 . ¤brecc variegated with white, RC xxi 399 § 46 . ¤briathrach fair- spoken (?): geilbriathrach cach flaitheamain, Arch. iii 230.139 . ¤buide: Niall g. `Tawny N.' AU ii 368.17 . ¤cloch hail- stone , CF Eg. 13 . ¤cnes white skin, TBC 5568 . RC ix 490.6 . CCath. 4671 . TFerbe 26 . ¤cnesta white-skinned: corp g., TBC 5309 . ¤corcra rosy: cossa gelchorcrai, RC ix 490.4 . dá ngrúad ng., BDD 100 d, n. 8 . ¤corp, RC ix 490, n. 4 . ¤crécht a white scar (= vestigia cicatricis), Lat. Lives 60.1 . foillechta in g. ib. 47 . ¤cruithnecht white wheat, Aisl. MC 37.10 . ¤derg bright red, crimson (?): brat g., BDD 114 . ¤dét white tooth , ML 62.19 . ¤féle pure modesty (?): friar Coimdid co. ṅgeḟéle, SR 8075 . ¤gainmide white-sanded , CF Eg. 8 . ¤gairthe bright ruddy , Dánta Grádha², 70.11 . ¤gart, SR 2375 . ¤glass bright blue , LL 230b28 ( TTr. 992 ). ¤glór clear voice: Filistín ... línib gelglor (: dermor), SR 5407 . ¤gnúis fair face , SR 4334. 4584 . ¤grúad: coṅglonnaib gelgrúad coemrád, SR 2750 . ¤iarnn steel: glais geilia[i]rnd, Ériu ii 4.13 . ¤maidm a bloodless victory, FM iv 752.8 . ¤mérach white-fingered: a lama gasda gelmeracha, ZCP x 305.17 . CF Eg. 48 . AS 148 . ¤miad stainless honour (?), Laws i 10.29 (so understood by Carey, CMCS xix 14 § 13 , but taken as gell míad 'with pledge and dignity' by McCone, Peritia v 33 ). ¤sciath a white shield , AS 231 , 1564 . Rawl. B 506, f. 27c ( O'D. 2293 ). in eret bus leir gelsciath ar muir, Ériu xi 98.16 . ¤tesc a silver dish: .x. ngeiltesca (gl. .i. míasa airgit), Ériu ii 4.14 . ¤torad pure profit (?): mar gel- toradh, BB 279a1 = mar ghlanthoradh, BR 216.12 . ¤trácht white strand, CF 492 . Fig. (of a man's body) tar cech g. don rigfeindig, Acall. 6201, n . ¤tulchach having fair hills: fán dtír ... gealtolchaigh, Misc. Celt. Soc. 352.y . an ḟuinn ghealtolchaigh, TD 16.10 .