F

Cite this: eDIL s.v. F or dil.ie/20963

Forms: f, f, -h-, -βf, f/p, β, f-, ḟ, fh, ḟh, s, ff, ḟ, ff, ḟf, bf, bḟ, bhf, fh

the third consonant of the Ogham alphabet, called in Irish after the alder-tree , fern ( Auraic. 1168 , 4264 , IGT, Introd. § 4 ), represents a bilabial voiceless spirant. O. Ir. initial f in most cases comes from IE , e.g. fer, corresponding to Lat. vir, W. gwr; fír: Lat. uērus, W. gwir. Both initially and in the interior of words it may also denote lenited s < sṷ, e.g. (mo) fiur (siur < *sṷesōr, W. chwaer); (mór) fesser (sesser; cf. W. chwech); airfitiud, < *air- sétiud (√ sṷeizd); toffunn, vn. of do-seinn. In the later language this f lenites to -h-. Occasionally f seems written for -βf, e.g. atrefea, fut. of ad-treba, Wb 30b18 , Ml 36a19 , 107a15 . In loan words f may replace Lat. u, e.g. fín < uinum, fís < visio; Lat. ph, e.g. felsub. fellsam < philosoph-; Lat. f, e.g. figor < figura. In fromad beside promad (Lat. prob-) there is an alternation of f/p also found in a few other words, native as well as borrowed, e.g. fairche /pairche (< parūchia), fairisínech, pairisínech, frém /prém (O. Ir. frén). In late Romance loanwords f may replace p. eg. fal- afraigh < palefrei. In Mid. Ir. rotfia = rotbia (e.g. LL 306b13 , ratfia, Lism.L. 350 , 464 , etc.) f may represent the sound of β unvoiced by preceding, t, but cf. ronfia, Lism. L 775 .

Inorganic f is frequently inserted

(a) in O. Ir. deutero- tonic forms of compound verbs before the initial vowel of a stressed syllable, e.g. do-fuarat `remains over' (*di- uss-reth), do-fuissim `generates' (*to-uss-sem).

(b) In Mid. Ir. it also appears in forms such as do-fongad (see tongid), do-fuit = do-tuit, do-fargaid (targaid `offered') do-fucc = doficc, and cf. dafiṅggebad `who would ward him off' SR 5796 , 5820 . And occasionally in a hiatus form of a simple verb: bífad, sec. fut. of benaid SR 5812 . bífed LL 60.28 . Cf. Fer fī = Fer hí, s.v. 3 eó.

(c) In a number of words which in O. Ir. began with a vowel f is prefixed in the later language. In the classical period both forms are in use in the literature, but it is in most cases the f- form that has survived in Mod. Ir.: fadaig- kindle (O. Ir. ad- doí); faicsin seeing (O. Ir. aicsiu); faidlenn rack (earlier aidlenn); faire watch, heed (O. Ir. aire); faisnéis relating (O. Ir. aisndís); fanaid waits (O. Ir. anaid); farrad in phr. i bhf. ¤ (O. Ir. arrad); fás growing (O. Ir. ás); faslach (aslach); fastad, -ód, -úd (O. Ir. astud); fathach giant (athach, O. Ir. aithech peasant); fatód kindling (O. Ir. atúd); féta- is able (O. Ir. -éta possesses); fiafraig- inquire (O. Ir. -iarfaig); focus near, neighbourhood (O. Ir. ocus); fúacht cold (O. Ir. úacht); fúaigid (cf. úaigid); fúar cold (O. Ir. úar); fúath horror (O. Ir. úath); fuinnsenn gs., ashtree, (see uinnius); fuiseóc lark (see uiseóc); furnaide waiting (O. Ir. irnaide, ernaide; see airnaide).

In the case of certain words, mostly verbal forms, beginn- ing with f followed by a vowel, a form without the initial f is also recognized in the Early Modern period; thus we get, e.g. fácbáil, ácbáil; faghbháil, aghbháil; fúair, úair; furáilemh, uráilemh; falafraigh, alafruigh; feiretrom (Lat. feretrum), eiletrum; fomhóir, omhóir, etc.

The lenition, that is, the expunction of f (see Ériu ii 41 ) is sporadically expressed by ḟ from a comparatively early period; there are instances in Sg., but the practice did not become regular before the Early Modern period. During this period fh is also used occasionally (ḟh Matt. vi 38 ). It is regular in Stapleton (see below). In mórḟeser, Arm. 18b2 , where represents lenited s < *su (see above) the reason of the dot is not apparent. Cf. a ḟiúr LU 10607 .

The `eclipsis' or voicing of f is not marked in the Glosses or in the earlier Mid. Ir. MSS. In later Mid. Ir. it is ex- pressed usually by ff; in some MSS often by ḟ, e.g. i ḟasach LB 276b18 ; dia ḟaicet, 245b52 . In the Late Middle and Early Modern period we find ff, ḟf, bf, bḟ, bhf. Some scribes use all these indiscriminately in the same text. In Stapleton's Catechismus (1639) both lenition and eclipsis are denoted by fh.

1 fa, ba, fo

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fa, ba, fo or dil.ie/20964

(often with mark of length; leniting). Apparently part of the copula, see Thurn. Hbch. 459 and Ped. i 270 . Or introducing second member of a disjunctive clause beginning with the interrogative i n-:

(a) imba bás ba bethu `whether it will be life or death' Wb 23b32 . imb i céin fa i n-accus beosa (sive cum venero ... sive absens) 23b41 . nebmess for nech im maid fa olcc 8d26 . im fochroíb bá chían `whether at hand or afar' Sg 151b2 . im tri dígbail fa thormach in dírṡuidigud 188a8 . in duit fein fa do nach ailiu 209b30 . dēca ... in ba teclaim na fertus dogēna fa n-iomscothad whether thou wilt gather the poles or trim them TBC² 782 (fa na n-i. LU 5259 , see under b below). cia de is[s]ruithiu, in ríg fa espuc, Laws iv 338.25 . ni ḟitir nech ... in cara fa náma ba nessam dó TBC 630 . na fintar imbi fir fo anfir, Laws iv 284.12 . ro íarfaigh A. ... in tibértáis rátha friu fó ná tibhértáis TTr.² 1814 . in córu in sinser ... do dul d'adrad in tṡósair, | fó in sósar ... is chóir d'adrad in tsinsir? SR 1835 . niconfetar in rabi aen and, fó na rabi, Aisl. MC 15.6 . ní fes tra an do nimh fá a talmain tainic an splangc FM vi 2012.7 .

(b) followed by i n-: in tre prois fa in tre metur ro ceta in t[s]ailim, Hib. Min. 6.176 (fanin, Harl.). cid ara ndéni G. in féli ... inn ar Dia fá inn ar daini LU 9653 . cumma la luit in for tein focerdtar fan for colcaid ZCP viii 104.1 . imba hāilgine ... ba m[b]a garge, Arch. iii 293 . nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae ... fo indat tri fuilt BDD 105 (Y = nó indat LU). cia so ṡén ... búi for in ló ... in ba maith fá in ba saich TBC 1073 . Without preceding in: cid tathi dia for coimdeid ... Fón missi robriss recht? SR 5533 . Cf. fá in arse (gl. an propterea) Enchir. Aug. 86b ( ZCP vii 485 ).

(c) Replacing i n- in first member of disjunctive clause: ní fes cecip tucht i tudchaidh fa fo síth nó fo eisíth FM iii 286.3 . ? ba i nómun ba i nincridiu, Ériu i 195 § 10 . Cf. perhaps: bé fo ná bé ri and be there or be there not BDD 73 (Y).

fa nacc (gl. necne) Sg 66a3 . in ... fa na(i)cc whether ... or not: imb anacol dom fa nac whether it be protection to me or no Wb 23a6 . rofitirside imbo ho chridiu fa nacc 27c11 . in tree aem didiu fa nacc 2c4 . in ruetarscar fa naic Ml 91c1 . in comscar ... fanaic 91c9 . (nihil horum sciens .i.) indam soirthae ... fa naic 91d4 . in chu[m]tubart ón in ícfider fa nacc 96b11 . ba cumdubart in étaste fa naic 43d20 . lasin rubu chumtabart inda biad torbae fa naic do mol[ad] Dáe 102d4 . robu anfiss dosom inrolég fanacc Sg 148a6 .

2 fa

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 fa or dil.ie/20965

(prep.): see fo and imm.

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fá or dil.ie/20966

x see is.

faba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. faba or dil.ie/20967

x see next.

fabach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fabach or dil.ie/20968

n o, n. (?): go ttuc an t-onchú fabhach fíorghér fúachda don ara gur tharraing a chenn da cholainn B iv 1, 146b4 . concertat fabach dia ḟés ichtair conclised dar cul a cind sechtair ┐ concerdat fabach dia ḟés uachtair con-foilged a ngluine MR 20.8 = FDG 143 (focheárdad; fabha v.l.). Cf. do chonnarcadar chuca aonóglach mór adhuathmhar ... agus do bheireadh fobha dá bhéal íochtair go bhfolchadh cúl a chinn siar, agus do bheireadh fobha oile dá bhéal uachtrach go bhfolchadh a ghlúine síos (fogha v.l.), Síoghra Dubh § 21 ( Gael. Journ. xix 166 ), P. O'C. cites this under fabha `a fling, cast or throw, an aim, effort or attempt.' See foba. n p. (?): assa mulluch ... sreatha fabaigh, lín il-argait bāin tar sál, Anecd. i 67 § 149 . = ZCP xi 158 (of a silvern column, cf. RC x 60 . xiv 44 ).

Cf. 1 fobach.

1 fáball

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fáball or dil.ie/20969

n o,m. (?) a going, moving; movement, course (?) : fabhall .i. feacht no siubhal, O'Cl. Translated ` carriage, act of conveying ', Laws vi s.v. It occurs in a passage dealing with waifs and property cast ashore, Laws iii 430.2 - 4 : in t-ainmraindi ata ina tochur, no ina tabairt do srothaib corub e in t-ainmraindi sin bes ina tochur no ina thabairt a faball in tsrotha sin; ocus ní faball ma focoisli .i. ní faball itir he, madia foxla sruth ni as, uair foxlait srotha ┐ ni foxlait fabaill `the proportion that shall be due for its casting ashore or its conveyance by the carriage of that stream' (`the flow of the stream' Stokes, Arch. iii 191 s.v.). conda n-imbir do chride it chliab immar ubull i fabull ná mar chertli i fásbulg (`wie ein Apfel in einem Wagen?') TBC 4386 (a prov. ?). ni ba filliud fabaill a uball ... RC xxv 348.9 (rhet.). atchid ... ara tia leis dochom nErend. asbert in ben robad aithrech ind ḟáboll dolotar cammae `their going would make them rue' Im. Br. § 63 (in ḟáboll, faball, ḟaball, fabuld MSS.). See also 2 fáball.

Here probably: atá oireachas Eireann eadarbhuais uasaibhse mar bhíos fód fábhaill ar foluamhain `a fabulous land' [a moving sod?] ML 124.27 ( ML² 1656 ). níor leat do chríoch áluinn óg | ní bhíoth acht fód fábhuill fúd, Ir. Monthly 1928 , 487 ( DDána 138 ). Cf. fott fabaill .i. parrthus Adhaimh isi sin in clochín cloch frithtomhuis suas ┐ anuas .i. comhḟada uadha suas co teaghus na Trínoidi ┐ uadha anuas go talmain, L. Fl. i 12rb 11 .

A time, occasion: dochúaid uait don ḟabull-sa he has escaped from you this time SR 6040 . Cf. the phr. i n-óení at one go, simultaneously: a n-aonfabull do-cuadar risna fiachaib at the one time they guaranteed Bürgschaft 52.22 . dia comtiassad in ciniud daenda i n-aenfaball da saigidh, CCath. 808 . ro greissit uile i n-énṡíst ┐ i n-énḟábhall (i n-aenabull, indoenfaball v.l.) 1827 . ro lasat uili ind oenfaball a slega fair 3626C . i n-oenabull, Cog. 148z . i n-aoinfhecht ┐ i n-oenfhabhall, Hugh Roe² 72. 15 (f.38a) . comhlassait a n-aoinfheacht ┐ a n-aonfhábhall (of fireworks), Fl. Earls 188.7 .

2 fáball

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 fáball or dil.ie/20970

Forms: fáible, fábhaill, faible

n ā,f., also o,m. (Lat. fābula or fābella) a fable, fiction, romance: fabhall .i. brég, O'Cl. `fábhall' brég, Met Gl., Ff. 13 . incipit do fhábull sísana, Aisl. MC. 69. 31 . sgéul fábhaill, Desid. 2181 . g s. (a) i cind na fáible ib. 71. 5 . (b) sgéal fábhaill TD 3. 32 . fuairsceul fabhaill, Keat. i p. 62 . frais-eolas fabhaill `a shower of fabulous information' p. 74 . seanchas fábhaill, Content. xx 7 . pl. ro dhealbhsat na filidhe sulbhaire na faible breigi .i. on focal is fabhula sgél, O'C. 1467 ( H 3.18, 651 ). más faibhle is milis a mblas, Content. vi 16 . na faibli guacha gendtligi, TTebe 785 . ní a mesc na faidhbhle na na cluicheadh, Instructio 199.24 (= non ad iocos et fabulas). Compd. an fábhaill-sgéal léaghthar ag Lúcas parable TSh. 1448 .

fábalta

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fábalta or dil.ie/20971

adj (2 fáball) io-iā fabulous: ata na ḟinnsgeul ḟabhalta, Luc. Fid. 371 .

fábar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fábar or dil.ie/20972

n (fábhar) (< Engl. faver, Risk 592 ): mar fhábhar spesialta, MacAingil 17.17 . fabhor 390.13 . ar ngabhail arís at fabhor ┐ at fiorghrásaibh, Carswell 184 . bhí fabhar an Rígh leis an tseirbhíseach mhaith, Prov. 14.35 .

See also fogar.

fabcún

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fabcún or dil.ie/20973

n o,m. (AN faukun, Risk 624 ).

I. A falcon: faucon .i. seabhac gnúis-aluinn, Ériu v 172.140 . da fhabcun ZCP vi 31.12 . da fáubhcun 29.17 .

II A kind of small cannon called falcon: ordanas dá ngoirthi fabhcúin ... conid de do len Bél Atha na ffabhcún don áth FM v 1408.9 . Ath na fadbcun AU iii 588.20 .